Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin level ≤12 or ≤14 mg/dL for w

Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin level ≤12 or ≤14 mg/dL for women and men, respectively [17]. Patients could develop anaemia or, for those with anaemia, worsening anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin level ≤8 mg/dL. For the liver function tests, 40 IU/L was taken as the ULN (for GSI-IX both ALT and AST) [18]. Patients were followed until they experienced an event or to the date of their last measurement for each clinical or laboratory marker in EuroSIDA. It should be noted that not all patients in all groups had information on these markers available for all analyses; therefore, the number of patients included in each analysis

differed according to the availability of data. Patients with the event at baseline were excluded from analyses. Any factor that was significant at the 10% level in univariate analyses (P<0.1) was included in multivariate analyses. In multivariate analyses, statistical significance was attained

if P<0.05. All analyses were performed using sas 9.1 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). A total of 6634 patients started a nevirapine- (1600; 24%), efavirenz- (3109; 47%) or lopinavir- (1925; 29%) based cART regimen after 1 January 2000. A total of 1750 patients (26%) were excluded from the analysis because they had no CD4 cell count or viral load measurement prior to starting treatment: 410 (26%) on nevirapine, 888 (29%) on efavirenz, and 452 (23%) on lopinavir. A total of 1039 patients (21%) were excluded because of previous exposure to any of the three Lepirudin drugs: 339 on nevirapine (28%), 297 on efavirenz (13%) and 403 on lopinavir (27%). Nine hundred and fifty-nine

patients (25%) did not achieve suppression, had stopped treatment within the first 3 months or did not have sufficient follow-up and were therefore excluded: 248 (29%) on nevirapine, 459 (24%) on efavirenz, and 252 (24%) on lopinavir. Thus, a total of 2886 patients were included in the analysis; 603 of these patients (21%) were on a nevirapine-based cART regimen, 1465 (51%) on an efavirenz-based cART regimen, and 818 (28%) on a lopinavir-based cART regimen. Patients excluded from the analysis had similar characteristics to those included, but were more likely to have previous cART exposure (64%vs. 57%, respectively; P<0.0001) and to have a prior AIDS diagnosis (32%vs. 26%, respectively; P<0.0001). Table 1 compares the characteristics of the patients in each group at the time of starting their new regimen. A lower proportion of patients starting nevirapine were treatment naïve: 28%, compared with 38% of patients starting efavirenz and 38% of patients starting lopinavir. Patients on nevirapine had a higher median CD4 count [359 cells/μL; interquartile range (IQR) 230–583 cells/μL] and a lower median viral load (2.70 log10 copies/mL; IQR 1.70–4.56 log10 copies/mL) compared with those on efavirenz [median CD4 count 323 cells/μL (IQR 190–535 cells/μL) and median viral load 3.59 log10 copies/mL (IQR 1.70–4.

The fundamental process in JIA is chronic inflammation, in which

The fundamental process in JIA is chronic inflammation, in which the immune system understandably plays a critical role.[1] Both innate and adaptive immune systems have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various subtypes of JIA. Over the last two decades our understanding of the pathophysiology of this condition has

improved a great deal and several new genetic associations have been PCI-32765 order recognized.[1, 3, 4] Family studies have provided firm evidence for genetic susceptibility in JIA. Although many candidate genes have been tentatively identified, most of these lack validation studies on different populations and appropriate sample sizes.[1, 3, 4] Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) linkages have been noted in oligoarticular and polyarticular forms of

JIA. Oligoarticular JIA has been shown to be associated with HLA-A2, DR5 and DR8, whereas DRB1*04, DRB1*07 and DQA1*03 are said to be protective.[1, 3, 4] HLA-A2, DRB1*08, DQA1*04 and DPB1*03 are associated with RF-negative polyarticular JIA and DRB1*04, DQA1*03 and DQB1*03 with RF-positive polyarticular JIA. RF-positive polyarthritis is also associated with HLA-DR4, DR1 and DR14, whereas DQA1*02 is protective.[1, 3, 4] HLA associations for oligoarticular JIA and RF-negative polyarticular JIA overlap, LEE011 suggesting that these are genetically related. However, RF-positive polyarticular JIA appears to be a genetically distinct disorder and has HLA linkages similar to adult rheumatoid arthritis. Quite understandably, the clinical course, response to treatment and complications associated with RF-positive polyarticular JIA are also similar to adult rheumatoid arthritis. Several non-HLA genes

have now been discovered to be linked with subtypes of JIA and the list of putative markers has been expanding over the years. Although many such associations have been previously suggested, these have not been subsequently replicated in follow-up studies in different populations. Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase Independent confirmations could be obtained for only a few candidate genes like, such as ‘Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22)’, ‘Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF)’, ‘Solute carrier 11 member 1 (SLC11A1)’ encoding for the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1, ‘WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 3 (WISP3)’ and ‘Tumour necrosis factor α gene (TNFA)’.[1, 3, 4] Thompson et al.[5] in a landmark study, examined a cohort of 809 JIA cases of non-Hispanic European ancestry and reported that ‘PTPN2’, ‘COG6’ and ‘ANGPT1’ were associated with oligoarticular and RF-negative polyarticular JIA. These are also known to be associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus, Crohn’s disease and multiple sclerosis, thus emphasizing the fact that common genetic mechanisms may underlie many autoimmune diseases and could influence therapeutic interventions.[5] In a subsequent study published in 2012, Thompson et al.

Importantly, the assay can be performed at bedside and in rural a

Importantly, the assay can be performed at bedside and in rural areas

using only Selleck AZD0530 a water bath (Tomita et al., 2008). Several LAMP assays have been developed to detect common causative pathogens of BM such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (Seki et al., 2005; Yamazaki et al., 2008; Hanaki et al., 2011; Kim et al. 2011; McKenna et al. 2011). However, no LAMP assay has been reported to detect Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus suis, which are two of the most common pathogens of BM in some countries (Mai et al., 2008; Chiba et al., 2009). Moreover, it is laborious and expensive by performing multiple reactions for each sample to detect bacterial pathogen. Thus, we aimed to design and develop a LAMP assay capable of detecting multiple bacterial species based on the nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of the bacteria. The broad range LAMP primers were designed to be specific for eubacterial 16S rRNA-specific gene. This gene was chosen because

of its highly conserved regions among species and has been widely used as a target for broad range PCR method (Gray et al., 1984; Lane et al., 1985). The partial nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of S. aureus (GenBank FJ907240.1), S. pneumoniae (Z22807), S. suis (Z22776.1), S. agalactiae (Z22808), N. meningitidis (Z22806), H. influenzae (Z22809.1) and E. coli (AY513502.1) were PD0332991 chemical structure retrieved from the GenBank database and were aligned to identify potential target regions using multialin software (Corpet, 1988). Several conserved regions were chosen for designing of LAMP primer set using the LAMP primer design software Primer Explorer

version 4 (Eiken Chemical Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan). A set of four primers including two outer primers (forward primer F3 and backward primer B3) and two inner primers [forward inner primer (FIP) and backward inner primer (BIP)] that identified six distinct regions on the potential target sequence was designed. This study Aldol condensation was approved by the institutional ethical review committees of the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University. Serotypes 3 and 10 of S. pneumoniae were isolated from upper respiratory tract in Vietnamese patients. Two strains (8-01 and 8-02) of S. suis serotype 2, E. coli, S. aureus and S. agalactiae were also isolated from Vietnamese patients. In addition, H. influenzae and N. meningitidis were isolated from Japanese patients. The S. pneumoniae was cultured on rabbit blood Muller Hinton agar, while other bacteria were grown on rabbit blood brain heart infusion agar. Grown bacteria were harvested and suspended in normal saline. The cells were pelleted, suspended in TE buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.

Ten thousand events for each sample were collected using facsdiva

Ten thousand events for each sample were collected using facsdiva™ software and the data were stored and calculated after mathematical modeling using modfit lt™ software version 3.0 (Verity Software House, Topsham, ME). Cells treated with 100 μM H2O2 for 2 min were used as positive controls. Cell lysate preparation was performed as described previously (Chauvatcharin et al., 2005). Briefly, bacterial cells in 20 mL cultures were harvested and washed once with 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB). Cell pellets were resuspended in PB containing 1.0 mM

phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, a protease inhibitor, and lysed by intermittent sonication. Cleared lysates, separated by centrifugation at 10 000 g for 10 min, were used for the catalase activity assay (Beers & Sizer, 1952) and total protein determination (Bradford, 1976). One unit of catalase was defined as the amount of enzyme Selleckchem EPZ015666 capable of catalyzing the turnover of 1 μmol substrate min−1 under an assay condition. In order to test whether catalases were required for heat shock tolerance in X. campestris

pv. campestris, a series of mutants lacking catalases, that is, katA, katG, and katA-katG mutants (Jittawuttipoka et al., 2009), were assessed for their ability to survive the heat treatment by exposing the exponential-phase cultures of the mutant strains to a high temperature of 45 °C for 10 and 15 min. The results are illustrated in Fig. 1. Inactivation of katA reduced Megestrol Acetate the bacterial viability by 100-fold, while the katG mutant showed roughly a 10-fold selleck screening library reduction in the survival after the heat treatment at 45 °C for either 10 or 15 min of treatment compared with a parental strain.

The katA-katG double mutant was over 1000-fold more sensitive to the heat treatment than a parental strain. In X. campestris pv. campestris, KatA is the major catalase responsible for 80% of the total catalase activity in the exponential-phase cells, while the remaining 20% of the activity could be accounted for by KatG (Jittawuttipoka et al., 2009). When the total catalase activity in the kat mutant strains was taken into consideration, a correlation between the ability to survive the heat treatment and the total catalase activity emerged (Table 1). Among the X. campestris pv. campestris kat mutants, the katG mutant had the highest total catalase activity (4.7 ± 0.5 U mg−1 protein) and also the highest heat-treatment survival rate among the kat mutants. The katA mutant had intermediate levels for both the survival of heat treatment and the total catalase activity (Table 1). The katA katG double mutant, whose catalase activity was not detectable, also showed the lowest heat-treatment survival (Fig. 1 and Table 1). The ectopic expression of katG from pKatG (pBBR1MCS containing a full-length katG) (Jittawuttipoka et al., 2009) could complement the reduced heat resistance of the katG mutant as well as the katG katA double mutant (Fig. 1).

Evaluation of scenario-based responses showed that

64% of

Evaluation of scenario-based responses showed that

64% of providers chose not to use antibiotics to treat moderate TD. Furthermore, Selleckchem Thiazovivin 19% of providers felt that severe inflammatory diarrhea was best treated with hydration only while 25% felt hydration was the therapy of choice for dysentery. Across all provider types, three practitioner characteristics appeared to be related to better scores on responses to the nine management scenarios: having a Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathy degree, greater knowledge of TD epidemiology, and favorable attitudes toward antimotility or antibiotic therapy. Conclusion. Results from this survey support the need for improving knowledge and management of TD among deploying providers. The information from this study should be considered to support the establishment and dissemination Venetoclax of military diarrhea-management guidelines to assist in improving the health of military personnel. Travelers’ diarrhea (TD) is a significant contributor to morbidity encountered by forward deployed service members. Recent studies have greatly

increased the understanding of the epidemiology and management of TD.1–3 However, little has been carried out to study whether this knowledge has been effectively translated and disseminated to operational health care providers. TD is typically defined as passing three or more loose stools in a 24-h period in addition to nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, fever, fecal urgency, tenesmus, or the passage of bloody or mucoid stools.4–6 TD typically resolves spontaneously over a 3- to 5-d period, but up to one-quarter of individuals with TD will have to alter their planned activities and up to 1 of 10 may develop postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome.7,8 With respect to the US military there have been many studies which have established

infectious Reverse transcriptase intestinal diseases among the most likely clinic visits for disease and non-battle injury.1,9,10 This occurs despite controlled food and water distribution systems during deployment. TD has an average cumulative attack rate of 29% per month, with rates upward of 70% during deployments to high risk areas such as Southwest Asia.2,11 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Campylobacter spp., and Shigella spp. are identified as causative agents for 38% to 45% of diarrheal disease among US military populations overseas.2 TD education, aggressive fluid replacement, antidiarrheal medications, and antibiotics have been the cornerstones of diarrhea management, although practice patterns and treatment guidelines vary. With respect to antibiotic therapy, in 2000, the Cochrane Collaboration Database published a systematic review that demonstrated the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment for TD.

The possible help of interpreters may not necessarily make such c

The possible help of interpreters may not necessarily make such conversations

more valid. An explorer, keen to find evidence of horrible stories heard elsewhere, will be only too quick to confirm the alleged habits of the little fish. In addition, it is very hard to know what fish the “natives” and the white “experts” referred to, given that the culprit is not only a very small and fragile creature but also one of many in this genus. The validity of translations of original Latin, German, Spanish, Portuguese, and French reports needs to be revisited. Updated cross-translations without a sensationalized agenda could ensure that crucial nuances are interpreted correctly and so the blurred line between embellishment and fact is captured precisely. For

example, “I VX-765 know of three cases” may be understood as “I know three cases,” which some may interpret as knowing three cases this website personally, ie, having seen them as patients. Suddenly, a story becomes a confirmed report. Also, historical handwritten German accounts will most likely be written in Kurrent script; some of its letters, eg, “g,” “p,” or “q,” can easily confuse a translator. Spotte’s two chapters “Culmination of Evils” and “Urinary Misconduct”[18] are particularly helpful as they also provide some original language excerpts. Finally, there may be particular reasons why locals told white visitors about the candiru. Were they kind and concerned Thalidomide about the explorers’ well-being? Were they exaggerating a very rare occurrence to keep intruders out? To conclude this section, it should be fascinating to see what the great explorers of the time wrote about the fish. It has been said that Alexander von Humboldt, Henry Walter Bates, and Alfred Russel Wallace, despite their long years in the area, did not mention the candiru at all.[18] Bates’ classic work[24] reports on the locals’ frequent bathing, fishing, hunting, and cooling down in the river (he calls them “almost amphibious people”),

suggesting an absence of the dreaded fish. His book is devoid of any reference to genitals; this may have influenced his selection of reported information. Von den Steinen, on the other hand, switched for such passages to Latin,[11] presumably to avoid leading young readers’ minds astray. However, Regan[25] mentions Wallace’s loss of about 200 preserved fish on his journey home and cites a short unreferenced note by the explorer about the peculiar habits of the candiru, a note confirmed by sighting the original document[26] and a modern reproduction.[27] Therefore, until further confirmation, it may be premature to suggest that neither von Humboldt nor Bates ever mentioned the candiru. Admittedly, many native people have not been aware of the fish either.

[5] Anticoagulation

in older patients poses unique challe

[5] Anticoagulation

in older patients poses unique challenges because they are simultaneously at higher risk for recurrent thromboembolism and major bleeding, including catastrophic intracranial haemorrhage.[6-8] Older patients may be at increased risk for anticoagulant-related bleeding because of the increased prevalence of comorbidity and polypharmacy, increased vascular click here and endothelial fragility, dietary inadequacies and increased sensitivity to warfarin.[9, 10] The limitations of warfarin necessitate regular monitoring of the International Normalised Ratio (INR) and dose adjustment. The efficacy and safety of warfarin therapy is strongly linked to the proportion of time that patients spend in the target INR range (time in therapeutic range; TTR).[11, 12] Unfortunately, many patients who are prescribed warfarin and managed in community settings, including those residing in aged-care facilities (ACFs), spend a considerable proportion of their time outside of the therapeutic range.[2, 13, 14] Barriers to optimal INR control in ACFs may include

difficulties arranging for pathology providers to visit the ACF, the time taken for the general practitioner (GP) to be notified of the INR result and the time taken for the GP to adjust the warfarin dose, if required, and alert or visit the ACF to implement changes.[15] Point-of-care (POC) coagulometers, Ibrutinib purchase which measure the prothrombin time from capillary whole blood and provide an INR reading within minutes, are becoming increasingly popular. They can be used by patients to enable self-monitoring of

warfarin and in primary care settings as an alternative to traditional laboratory determination of the INR. Use of such devices can benefit both patients and primary care physicians in managing anticoagulation therapy.[16, 17] The combination of POC monitoring and telemedicine may assist in improving access to regular INR monitoring and the communication of results in primary care. The use of telemedicine systems provides an opportunity to reduce labour-intensiveness and improve clinical outcomes for chronic diseases.[18] The aim of this study was to develop and fully evaluate a pilot system that integrated monitoring of clinical parameters or therapeutic outcomes, using portable POC testing devices, with electronic communication of the results from ACFs to GPs and electronic feedback from GPs to the ACFs, utilising national information communication technology (ICT) standards. We conducted a prospective before-and-after proof-of-concept study to compare the INR control achieved with POC INR monitoring and electronic communication to and from GPs with the control achieved in the 12 months immediately preceding the study using conventional management (laboratory INR with physician dose adjustment).

In all self-sterile F asiaticum strains examined, the MAT1-1-1,

In all self-sterile F. asiaticum strains examined, the MAT1-1-1, MAT1-2-1, and MAT1-2-3 expression was also highly induced at the early stage, similar to those in F. graminearum described above, but the transcript levels during the entire sexual cycles were c. 10- to 20-fold lower than those in F. graminearum (Fig. 1, Table S2). The later sexual stage-specific patterns of MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 shown in F. graminearum were significantly altered in F. asiaticum. Neither MAT1-1-2 nor MAT1-1-3 was significantly induced at any time point during the sexual development compared with those during the vegetative growth (Fig. 1, Table S2). Integration of a transforming DNA construct

for gene deletion into the fungal genome via a double cross-over resulted IDO inhibitor in a F. graminearum Z3643 or Z3639 strain lacking individual MAT genes (designated ΔMAT1-1-1, ΔMAT1-1-2, ΔMAT1-1-3, ΔMAT1-2-1, and ΔMAT1-2-3; Fig. 2a). Targeted gene deletion was verified

by DNA blot hybridization (Fig. 2b). In carrot agar cultures of the wild-type Z3643 or Z3639 strains, protoperithecia began to form at 3 dai and developed into fully fertile perithecia after 6–7 dai, which carried asci containing eight ascospores. However, those formed in the ΔMAT1-1-1, ΔMAT1-1-2, and ΔMAT1-1-3 strains were smaller than normal perithecia from wild-type cultures, and carried neither asci nor ascospores even 4 weeks after perithecial induction (Fig. 3). Barren perithecia in the ΔMAT1-1-1 strains were smaller than those in the ΔMAT1-1-2 and ΔMAT1-1-3 strains, but the numbers of barren perithecia from selleck inhibitor all of these ΔMAT strains were similar to those of fertile wild-type strains (Fig. 3). In addition, the ΔMAT1-2-1 strain (T43ΔM2-2) produced no perithecia on carrot agar, as reported previously (Lee et al., 2003). Unlike these MAT deletion strains, the ΔMAT1-2-3 strains produced a similar number of normal fertile perithecia to Z3643, demonstrating that MAT1-2-3 are dispensable for perithecia formation in F. graminearum

(Fig. 3). The phenotypes of all of the MAT-deleted strains examined, other than Quisqualic acid fertility (e.g. mycelial growth, pigmentation, and conidiation), were not different from those of their wild-type progenitor (data not shown). To determine whether self-sterile ΔMAT strains retain the ability to outcross, we set up sexual crosses of a transgenic F. graminearum (FgGFP-1) carrying a GFP gene to each of the ΔMAT1 strains, wherein the ΔMAT strains were forced to act as the female parent. All outcrosses except that of the ΔMAT1-2-3 strain produced morphologically normal mature perithecia with asci containing eight ascospores; the numbers of perithecia formed in the outcrosses were reduced to c. 30% of the level of the self or wild-type strains based on examination of more than 100 perithecia. All perithecia from each outcross examined yielded eight tetrads, of which four fluoresced (Fig. 4), indicating the occurrence of normal meiosis for production of recombinant progeny.

The conference is an important forum for exchange in scientific i

The conference is an important forum for exchange in scientific ideas and knowledge among participants through interactive workshops, oral and poster sessions and invited lectures. Professor Josef Smolen was invited to Hong Kong ABT-199 research buy and delivered a talk on ‘New Aspects in EULAR Recommendations in the Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis’ on 24 February 2014. Other than updating the audience of the Hong Kong Society of Rheumatology on the EULAR guideline, his talk raised critical thoughts on issues including the choice between triple therapy and biologic agents and the use of biologic monotherapy

in RA patients refractory to methotrexate monotherapy. The Iraqi Society of Rheumatic Diseases Conferences was held in Erbil, Iraq during 10–12 April. This was a landmark conference as it was the first in the country after the United States occupation of Iraq in 2003. Malaysia Society of Rheumatology is celebrating its silver jubilee this year. In conjunction Dabrafenib with this, the 15th Rheumatology Workshop organized by Malaysian

Society of Rheumatology and Singapore Society of Rheumatology will be held in Kuala Lumpur on 22–24 August 2014 with the theme of Rheumatology Across Ages. “
“Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by immune abnormalities, progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, and microvascular injury and damage. Interleukin-21 receptor (IL-21R) is expressed in the epidermis from patients with SSc. However, information describing the role of IL-21 in SSc is limited. We established a mouse model of bleomycin (BLM)-induced fibrosis. The frequency of CD4+IL-21+T, CD4+IL-21R+T and IL-21+Th17 cells in peripheral blood, skin and lungs of BLM-induced mice were detected by flow cytometry; IL-21 levels in the peripheral blood were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CD4+T

cells were isolated from the spleen of BLM-induced and control mice and cultured in vitro alone or in the presence of mrIL-21 or mrIL-21 plus transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. The frequency of Th17 cells was detected by flow Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) cytometry; levels of IL-17 were evaluated by ELISA, and the expression of IL-17A and retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan receptors gamma t (RORγt) messenger RNA were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Compared to control mice, the frequency of CD4+IL-21+T, CD4+21R+T and IL-21+Th17 cells and the levels of IL-21 were significantly increased in BLM-induced mice. The frequency of CD4+IL-21+T, CD4+21R+T and IL-21+Th17 cells and the levels of IL-21 were correlated with dermal and pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. In vitro analyses indicate that IL-21 promoted the differentiation of Th17 cells from CD4+ cells isolated from the spleen of BLM-induced mice. IL-21 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SSc as a Th17 effector cytokine, and IL-21 may induce the differentiation of Th17 cells in the BLM-induced SSc mouse model.

Tukey’s estimates of least significant differences were


Tukey’s estimates of least significant differences were

calculated from the anova analysis. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between all pairs of variables were calculated. During the period of 0–9 days, the highest growth rate of the co-culture (A. niger–B. cepacia) was observed on the third day of postinoculation, after which it plateaued. Biomass of the co-culture was on average 2.1 times higher (P < 0.05) than that of the fungus and 6.9 times higher than that of the bacterium (Fig. 1a). In single cultures, A. niger growth was faster than B. cepacia. While the mycelial mass increased 2.2 times on sixth or ninth day in comparison with the third day, the bacterial mass increased only 1.3 and 1.8 times, respectively. The levels of solubilized phosphate ranged from 0.65 to 1.10 mg  mL−1. On the third day, solubilized phosphate showed an increase in 15 times in the B. cepacia culture, 27 times see more Fulvestrant supplier in the A. niger culture, and 23 times in the co-culture in relation to time zero (Fig. 1b). During the subsequent incubation periods, little increases in the amount of solubilized phosphate were observed. The averages observed at the end of the incubation period were 0.57 mg  mL−1 for the bacteria, 0.74 mg mL−1 for the fungus, and 0.76 mg  mL−1 for the co-culture (Fig. 1b). The efficiency of solubilization of CaP continually increased, and at the end of the incubation period, 100% of the

phosphate was solubilized by co-culture, while single cultures, rates of 78% with B. cepacia and 91% with A. niger were

obtained (Table 1). A similar trend was observed with the production of acid that increased considerably on the third day of incubation (Fig. 2a). This increase was maintained at sixth day in the fungal culture, and subsequently decreased. On the third day, acid produced by the co-culture (5.40 mg mL−1) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than other cultures and the sum of acid produced individually by the fungal (4.35 mg mL−1) and bacterial (0.55 mg mL−1) cultures. The initial pH of the culture medium was 6.9 (time zero) and decreased on third day to 3.4 in the fungal culture, GBA3 3.7 in the co-culture, and 5.0 in the bacterial culture (Fig. 2b). pH decrease was also observed at the subsequent time points; however, decreases were not as great. On ninth day, the pH values were 3.0 (A. niger), 4.2 (B. cepacia), and 3.1 (A. niger–B. cepacia). No significant difference of the pH was found between fungal and co-culture (Fig. 2b). Glucose content was dramatically reduced even after 3 days of incubation; 68, 99, and 98% reduction in glucose levels were observed in media inoculated with fungi, bacteria, and the co-culture, respectively (Fig. 3a). On the ninth day of postinoculation, glucose content was almost completely consumed in all cultures. Acid phosphatase activity ranged from 9.35 to 52.26 μg pNP h−1 mg−1 dry biomass (Fig. 3b).