4 and 5 It is described that pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokin

4 and 5 It is described that pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules, regulate the sequential recruitment of leukocytes and are frequently observed in the tumour microenvironment6 which stimulate the growth and survival of malignant cells.7 Although the role of cytokines in tumour biology has been extensively studied, the literature is still controversial about their effects on cancer biology.8 The mediators and cellular effectors of inflammation are important components of the local tumour environment. In some types of cancer, inflammatory conditions are present before a malignant

check details change occurs, whilst in other types of cancer, an oncogenic change induces an inflammatory microenvironment that promotes the development of tumors.9 The mechanisms of cytokines action in carcinogenesis are of great importance, due

to their involvement in tumour survival. Thus, the inhibition of pro-tumorigenic cytokine may offer an alternative target aimed at the blockage of tumour progression.10 Interleukins (IL)-4, IL-6 and IL-10 GSK J4 datasheet are multifunctional cytokines involved in adaptative and innate immunity cell mediators. The IL-10 is an immunosuppressive molecule secreted by tumours with anti-inflammatory action.11 The role of IL-10 production within the tumour microenvironment still remains controversial. It is debated that IL-10 can favour tumour growth in vitro by stimulating cell proliferation and inhibiting cell apoptosis, 1 which is correlated with poor survival of some cancer patients. 12 and 13 On the other hand, the IL-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which modulates both the innate and adaptative immune response. 14 IL-6 has been shown to function as a growth factor

in several human tumors 15, 16, 17 and 18 and plays an important role in regulating apoptosis in many cell types. Interestingly, it has been demonstrated that oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients produce increased release of IL-6 into Inositol monophosphatase 1 saliva and that IL-6 contributes to carcinogenesis of oral mucosa or maintenance of the condition in OSCC. 19 Also, it is suggested that IL-6 inactivates p53 tumour suppressor gene. 20 In addition, IL-4 is a tumour-promoting molecule which regulates local immune response, usually elevated in human cancer patients. 21 Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the expression of IL-4, IL6 and, IL-10 in an in vitro model of tumorigenesis, 22 which mimics a situation where in situ neoplastic cells of oral carcinoma, are surrounded by benign myoepithelial cells from pleomorphic adenoma in order to correlate the cancer cell growth and the role of these cytokines in regulating the neoplastic process.

, 2008, Deli et al , 2005 and Tóth et al , 2011) The key feature

, 2008, Deli et al., 2005 and Tóth et al., 2011). The key features of the adult BBB result from a sequence of cell:cell Baf-A1 mw interactions during development between the ingrowing vessel sprouts and the associated cells of the NVU (Liebner et al., 2011). When brain microvessels are isolated from adult mammalian brain and brain endothelial cells are cultured from these vessel fragments, they retain many key features of the BBB phe-notype. In 1969, Siakotos and colleagues described for the first

time a method to successfully isolate bovine and human brain endothelial cells (Siakotos et al., 1969). Nearly a decade later, Panula et al. demonstrated the migration of rat brain endothelial cells from isolated capillaries. These cells were able to grow in culture and had strong alkaline phosphatase activity (Panula et al., 1978). Tontsch and Bauer (1989) simplified the culture methods for isolating murine and porcine brain endothelial cells (e.g. avoiding sieving steps, gradient centrifugations) and optimised the culture medium to increase cell yield. They also found that when proliferative factors such as endothelial cell growth supplement (ECGS) and heparin were removed from culture medium, the morphology of cells changed from spindle-shape to cobblestone phenotype. Through a series of experiments, DeBault and Cancilla gave evidence for the influence of

astrocytic factors on BBB phenotype of brain endothelial cells (DeBault and Cancilla, 1980a, DeBault and Cancilla, 1980b and DeBault, 1981). These studies led to the development of co-culture models of the BBB (Joó, see more 1985). We chose to develop a porcine BBB model for several reasons: (1) A single pig brain gives a high yield of cells compared to that from rat or mouse. (2) Porcine brains are relatively easy to obtain as they are

a by-product of the meat industry; there is no need to have animal breeding facilities 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl on site to maintain a continuous supply of brain tissue. (3) Porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs) generally retain many key features of the BBB following isolation, and the rate of loss of BBB phenotype in culture is less than for rodent or bovine BBB models (Deli et al., 2005), therefore co-culture with astrocytes is not essential to induce functional expression of tight junctions (i.e. high TEER) (Patabendige et al., this issue). (4) The porcine genome, anatomy, physiology and disease progression reflect human biology more closely than many established laboratory animals (Walters et al., 2011). (5) The availability of miniature pigs and novel porcine transgenic disease models make the pig the most suitable animal model to study human disease (Bendixen et al., 2010 and Lunney, 2007). The miniature pig is now a well established ‘large’ mammalian model for pharmacokinetics/toxicology studies (Bode et al., 2010) and is also used for surgical studies to generate organs for xenotransplantation (Vodicka et al., 2005).

Verbal WM/STM is probably

only impaired if DD is accompan

Verbal WM/STM is probably

only impaired if DD is accompanied by reading/verbal difficulties (e.g., with dyslexia). We conclude that the MR theory of DD which is currently dominant in neuroscience research is insufficient to explain pure DD. Hence, there is a need for a paradigm shift in DD research; neuro-imaging studies should now take alternative theories of DD, defined by extensive behavioral research, seriously. Crucially, rather than aiming at reconfirming a single theory of DD, studies should test click here theories against each other. Our data suggests that the most robust dysfunction in DD is that of visuo-spatial STM and WM with the impairment of inhibitory function (interference suppression). Both of these functions have been linked to the IPS. Hence, we suggest that IPS dysfunction in DD is probably related to WM and inhibition impairment. We hypothesize that the WM and inhibition impairments are related to each other and the inhibition function impairment reflects the disruption of a crucial processes of central executive memory function. That is, pure DD could be characterized by the specific impairment of visuo-spatial STM and by the specific impairment of CX-5461 clinical trial the inhibitory processes

crucial to visuo-spatial central executive memory function resulting in poor WM. Future imaging studies of DD should take these cognitive functions into account. Intervention studies could explore whether the above functions can be improved in DD. Spatial processing seems intact

in DD albeit slowly accessible which is probably a consequence of memory/inhibition impairment. This work was supported by Medical Research Council grant G90951 (D.S.). D.S., F.S., A.D. and A.N. designed the study. F.G. contributed to design. F.S. programmed experimental paradigms. A.D., A.N. and F.G. collected the data. F.S. prepared Thymidine kinase the data for analysis. D.S. wrote analysis programmes, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. “
“When a person speaks, we usually expect to hear their voice at the same time as seeing their lips move. Furthermore, if we watch their lips, it often helps us to hear their voice better, via ‘speechreading’ (Sumby and Pollack, 1954). Two distinct kinds of processes are implied by such observations: synchronisation and integration. Firstly, we are sensitive to when auditory and visual events are occurring at the same time (Alais and Carlile, 2005; King, 2005; Kopinska and Harris, 2004; Sugita and Suzuki, 2003). Secondly, the ability to benefit from the combination of modalities, as in speechreading, requires that auditory and visual information be brought together in the brain and integrated.

Neutralized and stained nuclei (from random 100-cells fields) wer

Neutralized and stained nuclei (from random 100-cells fields) were blindly analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (200×). Cells were scored

from 0 (undamaged) to 4 (maximally damaged), according to the tail intensity (size and shape), resulting in a single DNA damage score Afatinib in vivo for each cell, and consequently, for each group. Thus, every group could be ranged for damage index with a value from 0 (all cells no tail, 100 cells × 0) to 400 (all cells with maximally long tails, 100 cells × 4) (Collins et al., 1997). The index of DNA damage was calculated by multiplying the number of cells by its own index score and then summed up its results. Total protein content was determined by the modified method of Lowry as previously described (Peterson, 1977), using BSA as standard. Data are reported as mean ± standard

error mean (S.E.M.) and were analyzed by Student’s t-test. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. All analyses were performed using the SPSS program, Version 12.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). This work was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), FINEP/ Rede IBN01.06.0842-00 and National Institute of Science and Technology for Excitotoxicity and Neuroprotection (INCT-EN). "
“Stroke is the third leading cause of death in industrialized countries (Lewis et al., 2008) and the most Belnacasan order frequent cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide (Donnan et al., 2008). Three months following a stroke, 15–30% of stroke survivors are permanently disabled and 20% require institutional care. Deficits can include partial paralysis, difficulties with memory, thinking, language, and movements. STK38 In the western world, over 70% of individuals experiencing a stroke are over 65 years of age. Since life expectancy continues to

grow, the absolute number of individuals with stroke will further increase in the future (Lakhan et al., 2009). Transient global ischemia arises as a consequence of cardiac arrest and causes selective, delayed death of hippocampal CA1 neurons in humans and can produce serious neurobiological sequellae of which cognitive deficits are most prominent (Lo et al., 2003, Moskowitz et al., 2010, Tanaka et al., 2000 and Merchenthaler et al., 2003; Etgen et al., 2010). Over the last decade, data from many studies support the idea that estrogens provide neuroprotective effects in a variety of focal and global ischemia models (Lebesgue et al., 2009, Merchenthaler et al., 2003, Garcia-Segura et al., 2001, Toran-Allerand, 2004 and Shughrue and Merchenthaler, 2003). The potent feminizing hormone, 17 beta-estradiol (E2), is neuroprotective in a host of cell and animal models of stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.

Vertebral samples from each individual were first crushed in liqu

Vertebral samples from each individual were first crushed in liquid nitrogen. Total cellular RNA was extracted Mitomycin C research buy using TRIzol Reagent (Life Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Total extracted RNA was subjected to DNAse treated (ArcturusPicoPure RNA isolation kit, Life Technologies) and RNA integrity and purity were assessed using a Bioanalyzer 2100 (Agilent Technologies). RNA was quantified using ND-1000 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop

Technologies Inc.). RNA samples from weeks 0 and 4 were pooled (3 fish per pool) according to sampling time and diet, while fish sampled at week 27 were processed separately (Table 1). Libraries were created using TruSeq Sample Prep Kit v2 (Illumina, USA) following the manufacturer’s instruction. Resulting libraries were quantified using a Bioanalyzer Enzalutamide mouse 2100 (Agilent Technologies).

Samples were multiplexed (6 samples per lane) and sequenced at McGill genomic platform (Montréal, Canada) with HiSeq2000 sequencer and a 100 paired-end (PE) technology. Reads from HiSeq2000 Illumina were processed with Trimmomatic v0.30 (Lohse et al., 2012) to remove low quality (trailing: 20, lowest quality: 30) and short reads (< 60 bp). Trimming also included removal of Illumina adapters together with the most common contamination vectors from UniVec database (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/tools/vecscreen/univec/). The combined high quality reads (pools/samples) were de novo assembled using the Trinity assembler ( Haas et al., 2013). Sequencing

yielded 185,369,129 reads for each end. Trimming decreased the amount of reads to 141,986,373. Assembly for Illumina 100PE reads led to 679,869 transcripts for a mean length of 542 bp (Table 1). This Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession GBTD00000000. The version described in this paper is the first version, GBTD01000000. From the 679,869 transcripts, 340,737 found homology (Blastn, threshold evalue < 10–4) with referenced ESTs for rainbow trout. Functional annotation revealed that 141,909 and 117,564 transcripts found sequence homology against Nr and Uniprot protein databases, respectively (Blastx, threshold evalue < 10–8). See supplementary file 1 for more details regarding the methods and the results. More information regarding transcripts and matches on Uniprot 4��8C database is provided in a spreadsheet in supplementary data (Supplementary file 2). Besides, a top-hit distribution revealed that transcripts matched mainly with teleost species (Fig. 1A). In addition, Gene Ontology association (GO) resulted in 11,202 assignment from which 93.4%, 91.1% and 85.9% were allocated to cellular components, molecular function and biological process, respectively (see details Fig. 1B). Finally, only 5.4% of the non-matching sequences against Uniprot displayed theoretical ORFs superior to 100 amino acids (see supplementary methods for more details).

Six of the programs studied allocated quota directly to communiti

Six of the programs studied allocated quota directly to communities to ensure their ongoing participation in the fishery. For example, dedicating 5% to 20% of the shares to certain communities in British Columbia and Alaska enabled those communities to remain in the fishery (Fig. 12) [27], [132] and [133]. In Alaska, shares are set aside as Community Development Quotas (CDQs),

which require that all fishery earnings further community development. These facilitate investments in education, infrastructure, and fisheries-related industries, thereby easing the transition to catch shares in vulnerable communities [133]. In Roscovitine solubility dmso an alternative model, the Northeast Multispecies Sectors program establishes seventeen cooperatives, each of which can be managed with different community interests in mind. Other community interests can also be aided in retaining quota allocation. For example, processor interests are sometimes addressed through direct compensation, cooperatives, or quota sharing [134]. The loss of part-time fishing jobs can be mitigated partially through

assisting new fisherman entrants in purchasing stakes in the catch share fisheries. Catch share fisheries are also allowed under the MSA to create limited loan funds through cost-recovery fees to help new entrants purchase quota. These programs can help bring fishermen and communities into the fishery that would otherwise not be able to do so [135]. In the Alaska sablefish and halibut fisheries, the North Pacific Loan Program receives approximately $5 million per year for this purpose [104]. Catch shares design can help to limit ownership UK-371804 concentration through regulatory caps. However, fishery concentration is more Tryptophan synthase a result of fishery economics than management system. Changes in the four firm concentration (a commonly used measure of industry concentration measuring the total market share of the top four firms) tend to be minimal in catch shares transitions (Fig. 13). Most concentrated fisheries either remain stable or experience negligible concentration gains (e.g., less than 6% in the New Zealand deepwater and Atlantic surf clam fisheries). The most concentrated catch share fisheries are

the same fisheries that were the most concentrated under traditional management (e.g., the New Zealand deepwater, New Zealand mid-water, the SCOQ fisheries, and others), maintaining their pre-catch shares concentrations of between 50% and 70% [14], [56], [65], [76], [83] and [136]. Overall, concentration is focused in fisheries with major economies of scale, independent of management approach. Fisheries requiring large capital investments in vessels or equipment tend to provide greater returns to the most efficient operators, reducing the number of owners even before catch shares. For example, the SCOQ fishery requires major investment in large dredge vessels, resulting in high ownership concentration even under traditional management.

, 1996), and broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998 and Fred

, 1996), and broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998 and Fredrickson, 2001) to develop and test a model that accounts for individual-level information seeking behaviour, and the contingencies that lead to information seeking as a form of procrastination. Information processing styles, typically characterised as tendencies to use analytical or intuitive (heuristic)

approaches to choice (Dane & Pratt, 2007) influence decision processes and outcomes. Analytical processes are required for Talazoparib research buy novel, complex problems whereas intuitive or heuristic processes are applied to numerous daily choices (Bargh et al., 1996 and Epstein et al., 1992). Theories of analytical and heuristic thinking rest on the dual-process concept which proposes two parallel, interactive

systems of thinking (Epstein, 1990 and Epstein et al., 1996). System 1 is intuitive, affect-laden and rapid. System 2 is cognitive, resource intense and requires time. Both systems yield positive outcomes. Analytical thinking is associated with effective decision making due to logical reasoning and fewer decision biases (Stanovich & West, 2002), and ability to focus on important aspects of information relevant to decisions rather than non-relevant contextual information (McElroy & Seta, 2003). Intuitive thinking is associated with expertise (Dreyfus & Dreyfus, 2005) and effectiveness in solving everyday problems (Todd & Gigerenzer, 2007). While the dual-process model has universal application, the extent to which System 1 and System this website 5-FU 2 are applied, and the situational contingencies that influence their use, are subject to individual differences (Epstein et al., 1996). Therefore, theories that rest on dual-process modelling need to take

into account individual-level antecedents and moderating factors. Employing this approach, Griffin et al. (1999) developed the risk information seeking and processing (RISP) model. They proposed information seeking is driven by individual differences in perceived information sufficiency, and continues until the point of sufficiency is reached. Griffin et al. (1999) placed information seeking and information processing together as the dependent variables in their model, and proposed that they combine to produce four decisions styles relating to routine/non routine and heuristic/systematic processing. However, recent research into decision processes, also building on dual process models, has added a second information processing style: regulatory processes that influence whether a decision should be made immediately or delayed Dewberry, Juanchich, and Narendran (2013a) proposed both cognitive information processing (rationality vs. intuition) and regulatory information processing have direct effects on decision outcomes. For example, when faced with a decision about whether to eat food that could harbour harmful bacteria, there are choices about whether to go with past experience, i.e.

, 2007) At present, bridging the organism-population gap seems o

, 2007). At present, bridging the organism-population gap seems only feasible through use of population models as demonstrated for Arctic cod, capelin (Mallotus villosus), and herring (Clupea harengus) by Hjermann et al. (2007) and for northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) by Ravagnan et al. (2010), or by employing a risk assessment approach. Beyer et al. (2012) performed a risk assessment for effects of C4–C7 APs in PW on three economically important fish populations on the NCS: Atlantic cod, haddock,

and saithe (Pollacius virens), based on fish distribution data, hazard information of APs in PW, data on PW discharges, and plume dispersion described by the exposure and risk model DREAM ( Reed and Hetland, 2002 and Reed et al., 2001). Their conclusion was that the environmental exposure to C4–C7 APs from Cyclopamine mw PW is too low to have any significant effect on the reproduction of fish stocks. Neff et al. (2006) and Durell et al. (2006) came to the same conclusion regarding the risk from PAHs in PW to the wider pelagic ecosystem in the NS when combining dispersion modeling by DREAM and PAH

measurements in passive samplers (SPMDs) and caged mussels. Smit et al. (2009) described a systematic relationship between sub-individual and individual sensitivity to oil from SSDs for DNA damage and oxidative stress biomarkers in 6 marine species and similar SSDs for whole-organism chronic fitness in 26 marine species. On average the selected biomarkers were a factor 35–50 more sensitive than the whole-organism response. The results implied that the 95% safety level (the lower 5 Alectinib concentration percentile or HC5, commonly used as PNEC in risk assessments), for whole-organism exposure to total hydrocarbons would safeguarded only 86% of the species from genotoxic damage and Protein kinase N1 79% from oxidative stress. The authors stress that their data were insufficient to support this as a general

relationship, but data from Bechmann and Taban, 2004, Bechmann et al., 2004, Buffagni et al., 2010 and Carls et al., 1999, (Hansen et al., 2011), Heintz et al., 2000, Jonsson and Björkblom, 2011, Pinturier et al., 2008 and Sanni et al., 2005, and Stien et al. (1998) provide supporting evidence from a wider range of sub-tropical to high-arctic species of fish and invertebrates that the whole organism responses are less sensitive to oil than biomarker responses. Smit et al. (2009) present a conceptual model suggesting further reduction in sensitivity as one moves up to the population level. This would concur with the idea that environmental factors governing the health and performance of a population, may override toxic effects on parts of the population. The studies above cover sensitivity to oil, but the authors suggest that the relationship may be valid for PW as well. If that is the case, it is even more unlikely that wide scale population effects should occur when individual effects are only seen locally.

However, the production and handling of these nanophotonics struc

However, the production and handling of these nanophotonics structures is costly and serial by nature. Since molecules are not specifically placed in the centre of the structures, they experience varying levels of fluorescence

quenching due to the distribution of distances to the metallic walls yielding heterogeneous signals. Instead of physically suppressing the light field around the BIBF1120 fluorophore by means of metals, an alternative approach is to locally enhance fluorescence using optical antennas (Figure 3d) [43]. The interaction of metal nanostructures with fluorescent dyes is very complex and can involve fluorescence increase by increasing the local excitation field and the radiative rate of the fluorescent dye. On the other hand, fluorescence can also be quenched and the energy be absorbed by the metal Ponatinib nmr nanostructures. More and more reports in recent years have indicated the specific requirements to achieve fluorescence enhancements of up to more than 1000-fold [44]. To exploit this approach for single-molecule assays a reproducible control of the enhancement hot-spots, for example, by the arrangements of noble metal nanoparticles is required. In addition, a handle is essential to place the single-molecule assay of interest in the hot-spot created by the nanoparticle. We anticipate

that DNA origami structures [45 and 46] can represent the scaffold to which not only Montelukast Sodium nanoparticles but also docking sites for single-molecule assays can be attached. DNA origami are self-assembled 2D and 3D nanostructures based on the single-stranded DNA genome of bacteriophage M13 that is folded with the help of hundreds of short oligonucleotides called ‘staple strands’ [45]. Crucially, these nanoassemblies allow a spatially defined arrangement of functional entities like for example biotins,

nanoparticles or docking strands for biomolecular assays [47, 48 and 49]. This has recently been exploited in the form of DNA origami with the shape of a nanopillar [50••]. Nanoparticle dimers attached to the DNA origami act as an antenna and focus the light in their centre where a single-molecule assay might be attached by further protruding DNA strands. At a gap of 23 nm that might be sufficient to place, for example, an enzyme a fluorescence enhancement of up to 100-fold could be obtained. Since the created hot-spots are ultra-small the enhancement is restricted to the molecules in the hotspot and additional labelled species (even present at elevated concentrations) in the surrounding solution vanish compared to the increased signal in the hot-spot. This opens the possibility to solve the concentration issue and allow single molecule assays at elevated concentrations.

Adhesion during the epiphytic stage is necessary not only for spo

Adhesion during the epiphytic stage is necessary not only for spore germination, but also establishment of a successful parasitic interaction ( Lu et al., 2004). The higher the inoculum concentration and more durable leaf wetness, the greater the fungal sporulation and damage ( Guyot et al., 2005). Plant scales are related to the fungal adhesion mechanism, favouring conidial and hyphal adhesion, so are involved in the plant–pathogen interaction process. It was observed that scales acted as focal points for adhesion of conidia and hyphae and bases for further growth ( Fig. 1E). These results indicate

that scales can function as a natural spore trap, favouring the epiphytic Venetoclax purchase stage and establishment of infection. This suggests that the differences in fusariosis infection of cv. Vitoria and other pineapple cultivars are in part due to more hostile environment in the pre-penetration (epiphytic) stage, and that scales can be considered a potential factor in the incidence of disease, in that scales may be associated with providing humidity Selleckchem ATM/ATR inhibitor and nutrients for spore germination following injury. In summary, consideration of scale number and density can provide important information on the ecology

of the pathogen and disease epidemiology and integrate into control strategies. The authors would like to thank the Departamento de Fisica (UFES) and Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual (LBCT/UENF) for technical assistance with the electron microscopy. Financial support was provided by CAPES (Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel), CNPq (National PLEK2 Council for Scientific and Technological Development), FINEP (Research and Projects Financing Agency) and FAPES (State of Espirito Santo Science and Technology Foundation). “
“Event Date and Venue Details from 2011 4th INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP FOR PHYTOPHTHORA, PYTHIUM AND RELATED GENERA; SYSTEMATICS, DETECTION,DATABASES, ECOLOGY 23–28 May College Park, MD, USA G. Abad E-mail: [email protected]

63rd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CROP PROTEC-TION 24 May Ghent, BELGIUM G. Smagghe E-mail: [email protected] Fax: 32-09-264-6249 Voice: 32-09-264-6010 Web: http://www.iscp.ugent.be/index.php 2nd ARGENTINE CONGRESS OF PLANT PATHOLOGY 26–28 May Mar del Plata, BA, ARGENTINA A. Ridao E-mail: [email protected] INSECT PATHOGENS AND ENTOMOPATHOGENICNEMATODES 19–23 June Innsbruck, AUSTRIA H. Strasser, BIPESCO TeamInnsbruck, Univ. Innsbruck, Technikstrasse 25, 6020 Innsbruck, AUSTRIA E-mail: [email protected] Web: http://www.uibk.ac.at/bipesco/iobc_wprs_2011/ 2nd ENTOMOPHAGOUS INSECT CONFERENCE 20-23 June Antibes, FRANCE E. Wajnberg, INRA, BP 167, 06903 Sophia Antipolis, FRANCE Fax: 33-4-92-38-6557 Voice: 33-4-92-38-6447 E-mail: [email protected] Web: http://tinyurl.com/2c5799s 3rd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ENVIRON-MENTAL WEEDS & INVASIVE PLANTS (Intractable Weeds and PlantInvaders) 02–07 October Ascona, SWITZERLAND C.