GLAST expression was originally found in the central nervous syst

GLAST expression was originally found in the central nervous system, and GLAST plays an important role in neurotransmission. Since glutamate signaling is involved in bone [92] and periodontal metabolism [18], the amino acid transporter could function

as a mechanosensing molecule in osteocytes. Loading-induced changes in the expression of transcription factors can affect the transcription of multiple downstream genes. c-fos is a cellular proto-oncogene belonging Selleck ABT888 to the immediate early response group of transcription factors that responds to mechanical stress in bone [93] and osteoblasts [94]. The c-fos gene product acts as a transcription factor, AP1, by forming a complex with c-JUN; this, in turn, governs the transcription of numerous downstream genes, including those involved in differentiation, proliferation [95], and apoptosis [95]. An increase in c-fos mRNA in osteocytes of the compressed caudal vertebrae has been demonstrated by in situ hybridization within 2 h after mechanical loading [75]. NO and prostaglandins

are two anabolic signals in osteocytes that are released within seconds in response to mechanical strain [96]. NO is a short-lived free radical that inhibits resorption and promotes bone formation [96]. The inhibition of the nitric oxide synthetase can abolish the loading-induced increase in prostaglandin ABT-263 datasheet E2 [97], and the prostaglandin inhibitor, indomethacin,

can block loading-induced new bone formation in vivo [98]. These findings suggest that osteocytes are the primary source of these load-induced prostaglandins in bone. Primary cilia are solitary, immotile, microtubule-based organelles that grow from the centrosome and project from the cell surface in many vertebrate tissues [99] and [104], including bone [100] and [101]. Single cilia are present on primary bone cells, and on osteoblastic and osteocytic cell lines. Protein kinase D (PKD)-1 and PKD2 are components of cilia with over known mechanosensory functions in the kidney that might also play a role in normal bone structure [101]. Malone et al. [102] have shown that reducing the number of cilia reduces the induction of OPN in MC3T3-E1 cells, the induction of prostaglandin in both MC3T3-E1 and MLO-Y4 cells, and the increase in COX2 and RANKL/OPG ratio in MLO-Y4 in response to fluid shear stress. Non-collagenous matrix proteins (NCPs) have multiple functions in bone cells, including the regulation of collagen fibril mineralization [103] and modulation of cell division, migration, differentiation and maturation [104]. Among them, OPN, originally purified from bone, is a sialic acid-rich 44 KD phosphorylated glycoprotein that contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) adhesion motif [105] and promotes adhesion and spreading of mesenchymal cells, fibroblasts, and osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells.

The work conducted in the author’s laboratory was supported by a

The work conducted in the author’s laboratory was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas (C) (2), #19592309 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. “
“Over the last decade, the use of dental adhesives for bonding restorations and fixed partial dentures has increased substantially. This

trend is mainly attributed both to improvement in properties as well as bonding durability of adhesive systems. Current bonding and priming agents contain various functional monomers especially designed for intraoral application, including carboxylic acids, acid anhydrides, phosphates, silanes, and thiones. Silver–palladium–copper–gold (Ag–Pd–Cu–Au) alloys with 12% gold are extensively used in Japan as cast restorations, fixed partial dentures, and framework of removable

dentures. In addition, Regorafenib price a number of bonding systems for noble metal alloys have been developed. This paper reports on the bonding systems applicable for noble metal alloys, techniques for seating restorations and fixed partial dentures (FPDs) made of Ag–Pd–Cu–Au HDAC inhibitor alloys, and clinical performance of bonding systems. Carboxylic acids, acid anhydrides, and phosphates are being used for bonding tooth substrates, base metal alloys, alumina and zirconia ceramic materials. However, they are incapable of bonding noble metal alloys. The use of thione or thiol monomers has been proved effective for bonding noble metal alloys. Mori and Nakamura [1] reported 6-(4-vinylbenzyl-n-propyl) amino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol

(VTD or VBATDT) for use as a priming agent for copper. Using the VTD dithiol-dithione tautomer and tri-n-butylborane (TBB)-initiated resin, Kojima et al. [2] reported durable bond of VTD to noble metal alloys. Two sulfur-based functional monomers were thereafter synthesized. One is 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl-2-thiouracil-5-carboxylate (MTU-6) [3], and the other is 10-methacryloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (MDDT) [4]. Four representative priming agents, all of which consist of single liquid, are currently Ribonucleotide reductase available (Table 1); V-Primer (VTD), Alloy Primer (VTD), Metaltite (MTU-6), and M.L. Primer (MDDT). Among the functional monomers shown in Table 1, VTD, MTU-6, and MDDT contain sulfur, and considered to be effective for bonding noble metal elements, copper, and noble metal alloys, whereas two acidic monomers, 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) [5] and 6-methacryloxyhexylphosphonoacetate (MHPA) [6], are considered to be effective for bonding base metal alloys and titanium. Fig. 1 shows the structural formulae of adhesive functional monomers. The single liquid primers eliminated the need for surface modification procedures, and are being successfully used for seating FPDs, cast restorations, and dowel cores made of noble metal alloys.

Moreover, chlorophyll gives an indirect estimation of the nutrien

Moreover, chlorophyll gives an indirect estimation of the nutrient status because

much of the leaf nitrogen is incorporated in chlorophyll (Ferruzzi & Blakeslee, 2007). Antioxidants are substances that counteract free radicals and prevent the damage they cause. These CB-839 molecular weight substances can greatly reduce the damage caused by oxidants by breaking them down before they react with biological targets, preventing either chain reactions or activation of oxygen to give highly reactive products (Ratnam, Ankola, Bhardwaj, Sahana, & Ravi Kumar, 2006). The results in Table 2 show that the concentrated mate extract had better (p < 0.05) antioxidant activity in vitro in comparison to the mate extract. Prudêncio et al. (2012) and Boaventura et al. (2012) also noted substantial ROCK inhibitor differences between DPPH EC50 in the mate aqueous extracts of bark and leaves after concentration processes. The well-known antioxidant activity of Ilex paraguariensis is related to

the presence of several compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid ( Anesini, Turner, Cogoi, & Filip, 2012). However, tests that measure antioxidant activity in vitro do not always show this behaviour in vivo. Wilmsen et al. (2005) reported that the evaluation of antioxidant activity using S. cerevisiae yeast as a biological system model is a quick test that shows representative results for studies of oxidative stress in eukaryotic cells treated with hydrogen peroxide. Both the samples that were evaluated were able to protect the yeast cells against damage caused by hydrogen peroxide (Table 2). Additionally, the results obtained in this present study indicate that the phenolic compounds present in the samples play an important role in antioxidant activity. Differences (p < 0.05) in the survival rates of the S. cerevisiae yeast treated with hydrogen peroxide of mate and concentrated Digestive enzyme mate extracts were noted in this present study. However, antioxidant activity does not seem to depend exclusively on total polyphenol content. As observed by Stefenon et al. (2010) in red sparkling wines, samples

with significant amounts of phenolic compounds did not show the highest antioxidant activity. Medina et al. (2011) also noted there was no correlation with the antioxidant activity measured by DPPH in araçá extract. It is possible that the lower protection of yeast cells against damage caused by hydrogen peroxide is due to condensation reactions influenced by nanofiltration. Halliwell (2008) reported that, under certain experimental conditions and in high concentrations, some polyphenols such as phenolic acids can exert pro-oxidant activities, forming compounds that have toxic effects and may cause cell death. The high concentrations of phenolic compounds in the concentrated mate extract obtained by NF probably explain their lower protective effect over yeast cells.

05) up to 120 h, which still failed to exceed the content of unfe

05) up to 120 h, which still failed to exceed the content of unfermented rice bran (RB). Ryan et al. (2011) also noted a reduced p-coumaric acid content after fermenting rice bran with S. boulardii. Chlorogenic and p-hidroxybenzoic acids and vanillin showed an increase in their content throughout

the fermentation. Protocatechuic acid did not show any significant increase (p < 0.05) after 24 h, whereas gallic and caffeic increased until 72 h, and syringic and ferulic acids increased their content until up to 120 h of fermentation. Gallic and ferulic acid contents displayed the most substantial content increases during fermentation, of about 60 and 20 times, respectively, compared to their contents in unfermented rice bran. The changes produced by fermentation on the profile of phenolic acids depend on the type of substrate, the fungus used and the conditions of fermentation ( Martins et al., 2011 and Schmidt and Furlong, 2012). Agro-industrial residues of vegetables and cereals such as bran, bagasse, straw, corn cob, among others are lignocellulosic materials mainly composed by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The lignin fraction of these materials contains numerous phenolic compounds, mainly acids such as ferulic, coumaric, syringic and hydroxybenzoic, which can also be recovered by SSF. Since fungi

grow on these residues, they use the polysaccharides Farnesyltransferase after lignin degradation in order to grow and reproduce (Martins et al., 2011 and Sánchez, 2009). Ferulic acid was the phenolic compound that stood out during the fermentation process, with over 700 mg/g produced (Table 1). The release of ferulic acid from agricultural byproducts by enzymatic methods has been increasingly researched, with most studies using yeast as an enzyme source (Martins et al., 2011). Ferulic acid has commercial potential, and may be applied as a natural precursor of vanillin, natural antioxidant, preservative agent in food products, anti-inflammatory agent and

photo-shield (Yang, Yue, Cao, Zhang, & Wang, 2009). Vanillin is one of the most commonly used flavouring agents in food products, fragrances, beverages and pharmaceuticals, and has recently been indicated in the bioconversion of ferulic acid in order to decrease vanillin production costs (Zheng et al., 2007). Our results suggest that the use of the R. oryzae fungus in rice bran could produce the enzymes capable of releasing ferulic acid residues and agro-industrial byproducts. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds was evaluated by inhibiting free radical DPPH, expressed in terms of the ability to reduce/sequester the free radical. Compared to others, this is a widely used method to evaluate the antioxidant capacity in a short time interval (Rufino et al., 2009 and Sánchez-Moreno et al., 1998).

Inulin-type fructans in RAF were obtained by partial hydrolysis o

Inulin-type fructans in RAF were obtained by partial hydrolysis of inulin, which was extracted from chicory roots (Chicorium intybus). Total fructans, glucose, fructose and sucrose in the YF were analysed by spectrophotometry (Steegmans, Iliaens, & Hoebregs, 2004). Insoluble (IDF) and soluble (SDF) dietary fibres were determined by the enzymatic–gravimetric method (Prosky, Asp, Schweizer, Devries, & Furda, 1988). The Fe concentrations in the diets and in the YF were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS; AAnalyst 100, Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT, USA) using a hollow cathode lamp at 283.4 nm and a slit of 0.2 nm after wet digestion (HNO3:H2O2,

5:1; v/v). The working standard solution

was prepared with ferric chloride (FeCl3) (Tritisol, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany). YF analysis showed 18% total fructans, 28.3% sucrose, 15.7% fructose, 6% IDF, 4% SDF and 4 μg Fe/g. The diet consumption in the repletion period was determined every 2 days, and the Hb concentration in the blood was obtained through tail puncture every 7 days (days 0, 7 and 14) via the Neratinib molecular weight cyanide Hb method (Drabkin & Austin, 1935). The Hb concentrations and Fe consumption results were used to estimate the following parameters (Mahoney, Van Orden, & Hendricks, 1974): (1) Hb Fe pool (mg), assuming the total blood volume was 6.7% body weight and Fe content in Hb was 0.335%: Hb Fe pool=[body wt(g)×Hb(g/l)×6.7×0.335]/10,000Hb Fe pool=[body wt(g)×Hb(g/l)×6.7×0.335]/10,000 At the time of euthanasia, blood was obtained from the abdominal aorta. Blood samples

obtained without anticoagulant were collected, and serum Fe concentrations and the unsaturated Fe-binding capacity (UIBC) were determined (Labtest Diagnóstica S/A, Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brazil). The total Fe-binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin saturation were calculated from the values of serum Fe and UIBC. Blood samples with anticoagulant (EDTA; 1 mg/ml; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) were obtained for complete and differential cell counts (Dacies & Lewis, 1949). The femoral cavity was flushed with McCoy’s 5A medium (Sigma Chemical learn more Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) to collect bone marrow cells. Spleen cells were obtained after disrupting the splenic capsule and dissociating the tissue in McCoy’s 5A medium. The total number of cells was quantified in a standard haemocytometer (Neubauer chamber; Herka, Berlin, Germany), and reticulocyte counts were carried out according to Brecher‘s method (Brecher, 1949). The liver Fe concentrations were analysed by AAS, as described for dietary Fe analysis. The faecal moisture content was determined through sample weight loss in an oven at 105 °C. The dried faeces were ground and the samples were used for mineral analysis.

Although the WHO clearly states that the guidelines are neither s

Although the WHO clearly states that the guidelines are neither standards nor legally binding criteria, by 2012, 466 out of 1099 cities had complied with the annual AQG for PM10 (WHO, 2012). The AQG for maximum permissible pollutant levels were established by expert judgment and applying the principle of the lowest

observable adverse effect level (WHO, 1987a, WHO, 2000a and WHO, 2000b) following a systematic review of toxicological, clinical and epidemiological studies (WHO, 2006b). Short-term AQG were defined as Nutlin-3 purchase mass concentrations with averaging times of 1 h (NO2), 8 h (O3) and 24 h (PM and SO2) based on evidence for the lowest pollutant level associated with observable acute adverse effects during Dabrafenib temporary exposure. The annual AQG with averaging time of one year were based on evidence for the lowest pollutant level associated with observable chronic and mostly irreversible adverse effects (WHO, 2006c). At present, the WHO has specified annual AQG for PM and NO2 only but not for SO2 and O3 due to inadequate evidence for chronic health outcomes and data on the properties of air pollutants in different meteorological and emission profiles. Although AQG represent a consensus view of evidence from five continents, gaps remain in the scientific evidence (Krzyzanowski and Cohen,

2008). In particular, WHO previously indicated that there is an inadequate understanding of the concentration-time relationship between short-term

and annual limits for an individual pollutant (WHO, 1987a and WHO, 2000a). It is not known whether the two types of time averaging concentration limits of the same pollutant are equally stringent in pollution control. The concordance or non-conflicting nature between the two types of limits is in fact an important criterion, because effective emission control can be set up to activate instantly Acyl CoA dehydrogenase with detection of signals showing exceedance of the short-term limit, as an early warning to indicate if the annual limit will be exceeded. Otherwise, discordance or “double standard” of the two limits would hamper enforcement of standards to protect public health, and create confusion in health impact assessments and risk communications. We aimed to pilot whether the relationships between short-term and annual air pollutant limits in the environments of different cities are consistent for both PM and NO2 and whether such relationships are in line with the WHO AQG. We also aimed to derive the annual limits for SO2 and O3 using the WHO short-term AQG. This study does not challenge the merits of both short- and long-term guidelines derived independently from health evidence, but instead aims to supplement the guidelines by raising hypotheses of paired guideline limits. We selected seven cities from the Asia-Pacific, North America and Europe as regions: Hong Kong, Bangkok, Sydney, Los Angeles, Toronto, London and Paris.

We were able to differentiate the shading effects and found that

We were able to differentiate the shading effects and found that for Norway spruce the effect of neighbor competition was more pronounced than the self-shading. Although the relationship of absorbed light to leaf area varied with tree size, we could not detect a different trend between light use efficiency and leaf area efficiency. Both indicated that trees with higher

tree Selleck CP690550 size not only received more light (leaf area) but also were able to produce more stem volume increment per unit of light (leaf area). We speculate that the higher efficiency in larger trees was not a result of higher productivity, but rather of a lower efficiency in smaller trees. On an individual tree-level, we found that Androgen Receptor pathway Antagonists at a given tree size, individuals from the unthinned plots were more efficient; however at the stand-level the average tree from the thinned plots was more efficient, since the tree sizes were generally higher. Unfortunately, this trend was not consistent

within all plots and does not fully agree with our third hypothesis. This work was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) by the project “Individual tree growth efficiency of Norway spruce” (P20159-B16). We want to thank the numerous field workers for the tedious sampling and processing. We are also thankful to the Habsburg-Lothringen’schen Gut Persenbeug (Bärnkopf) who allowed us to conduct this research on their sites. We want to give special thanks to the Central Institute for Meteorology and

Geodynamics (ZAMG) Austria for access to their meteorological database. We are also grateful to Remko Duursma from the University of Western Sydney, Australia, who was helping out with parts of Maestra. “
“The authors regret that in this work, they should not have considered in the comparison of specific CO2 emissions of bioenergy system and coal, the difference in their energy content (see unnecessary text in p. 90 and Figure 9). This was because it is already considered in calculation of specific Paclitaxel ic50 CO2 emissions per unit of energy (see Table 2). Thus, they should have compared directly the values given for bioenergy system in Table 2 against corresponding value of coal (341 kg CO2 MWh−1). In reality, the values shown in bold text in Table 2 represent > 50% less emissions compared to that of coal. Thus, the most of management regimes did output successful substitution. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. “
“The height:diameter ratio is an important measure of tree and stand stability for conifers. Trees with higher ratios are more prone to snow and wind damage than trees with lower ratios.

, 2004) In Africa, temple art at Deir El Bahari in Egypt dating

, 2004). In Africa, temple art at Deir El Bahari in Egypt dating from around 1500 BC shows potted Boswellia sp. seedlings being loaded onto ships for transport from the Land of Punt (present day Somalia) to Egypt (see Harlan (1975) and references therein). Tectona grandis was introduced from Laos to the PS-341 datasheet island of Java in Indonesia by Hindu travellers between the 14th and 16th centuries, if not earlier, and from North India to Africa

by the Germans at the end of the 19th century ( Verhaegen et al., 2010). In the 18th century, seeds of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Larix decidua and Quercus spp. were widely traded across European countries ( Tulstrup, 1959). Exploration by Europeans in Australia and North America in the 19th century also resulted in international transfers of tree germplasm (i.e., seed, cuttings or other propagating parts of a tree) for forestry purposes, and such exchange continues to this day ( Griffin et al., 2011). In addition to being driven by the uses of various species, the transfer of tree germplasm has been influenced by the prevailing mind sets of different historical and political eras

(Carruthers et al., 2011). During the mid- to late-colonial period from the 19th century to the mid-20th century, tree germplasm was transferred to “improve” both the aesthetic value of landscapes and their economic productivity. The economic RGFP966 aspects were further emphasized during the period of post-colonial national development in many countries over much of the 20th century, during which time tree germplasm was transferred for establishing large-scale plantations to supply raw material for industrial modernization. Since the 1980s, tree germplasm has been increasingly transferred under the banner of

sustainable development to improve the livelihoods and environments of smallholders and local communities (Graudal and Lillesø, 2007). Before proceeding further, a note on terminology is necessary. The movements of trees and other plants were categorised by Kull and Rangan (2008) into three processes, namely transfer, diffusion and dispersal. The first two of these they classified as human-mediated, defining “transfer” as transoceanic or other large-scale movements of germplasm, while with “diffusion” they Janus kinase (JAK) referred to movements at national or local scales. With “dispersal”, Kull and Rangan (2008) referred to the movement of reproductive material by biotic and abiotic agents. We recognize the utility of this classification, but the border between “transfer” and “diffusion” is sometimes difficult to define. Therefore, in this paper we use the term “transfer” for all human-mediated movements of tree germplasm, regardless of geographical scale. The transfer of tree germplasm has shaped the management, ecology and genetic diversity of forests, both planted and natural, in many parts of the world.

The fraction

powder was also dissolved in methanol, and g

The fraction

powder was also dissolved in methanol, and ginsenoside Rg3 was analyzed by HPLC. HPLC was carried out on an LC system equipped with an autosampler and a binary gradient pump (Capillary HP 1100; Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). A reversed-phase column (Venusil XBP C18, 250 mm × 4.6 mm, internal diameter 5 μm; Agela Technology, Newark, DE, USA) was used for quantitative determination of ginsenoside Rg3 (20 mg/g). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile (A) and water (B) with a flow rate at 1.6 mL/min, and the column was kept constant at 30°C. The detection wavelength was set at 203 nm. We measured the effects of ginseol k-g3 on general locomotor activity. Thirty minutes after drug or saline (control group) administration, separate groups of mice were placed individually in the center of an activity box (measuring 47 cm × 47 cm), bordered by 42-cm high side walls. Spontaneous SP600125 clinical trial activity was measured selleck chemical for 10 min using automated systems (Ethovision System; Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, Netherlands). The following indices of locomotor activity were recorded by the computer program: moved distance, movement duration, and frequency of rearing. In separate groups of mice, the effects of the repeated (6 d) administration

of ginseol k-g3 on locomotion were also investigated. Locomotor activity tests were conducted during the 1st, 3rd and the final day of drug treatment. Y-maze tests were conducted as described previously [29]. One hour before the tests, mice were administered with the test compounds or with saline or donepezil (positive control). After 30 min, scopolamine [1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] was injected to induce memory impairment. The effects of the drugs on spontaneous alternation behavior of mice were measured for 8 min. An arm entry was defined as the entry of all four paws and the tail into one arm. The sequence of arm entries was recorded using automated systems (Ethovision System). The alternation Tacrolimus (FK506) behavior (actual alternations) was defined

as the consecutive entry into three arms, that is, the combination of three different arms, with stepwise combinations in the sequence. The maximum number of alternations was considered as the total number of arms entered minus 2, and the percentage of alternation behavior was calculated as (actual alternations/maximum alternations) × 100. The number of arm entries was used as an indicator of locomotor activity. The passive avoidance task was conducted in identical illuminated and nonilluminated boxes (Gemini Avoidance System, San Diego Instruments, San Diego, CA, USA), as described previously [29] and [30]. Mice underwent an acquisition trial and a retention trial that followed 24 h later. One hour before the acquisition trial, mice were given the test drugs, saline (control group) or donezepil.

When compared to the control group, the obese patients had signif

When compared to the control group, the obese patients had significantly higher FVC and FEV1, but both groups exhibited predicted values within

normal limits. Three individuals were former smokers, and the others were nonsmokers. All of these individuals were sedentary. In the control group, five individuals performed regular physical activity. Table 2 shows the data related to BMI and breathing pattern variables of patients before and at 1 and 6 months after surgery as well as those of the control group. There were significant and progressive reductions in BMI after the surgery, although CHIR-99021 chemical structure the values were higher than those of the control group (p = 0.000 for all comparisons). Tidal volume exhibited a significant decrease postoperatively compared to the preoperative recordings (p = 0.01) but without any differences between measurements at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. There were no differences in tidal volume between patients and the control group. There were no consistent changes in the f of Group I during the postoperative period. A higher f was observed preoperatively and 6 months after surgery when compared to the control group (p = 0.008 and p = 0.01, respectively). Minute ventilation exhibited a significant decrease at the postoperative measurements compared

to the preoperative measurements (p = 0.01) without any differences between 1 and 6 months. In the control group, VE was higher than in the preoperative obese patients (p = 0.004). The TI/TTOT values of obese patients exhibited a significant decrease at the postoperative

measurement compared to the preoperative check details measurement (p = 0.01) but without any differences between postoperative oxyclozanide measurements at 1 and 6 months. There were no differences in TI/TTOT values between patients and the control group. The VT/TI comparisons did not show any significant differences (p = 0.22). Table 3 shows the thoracoabdominal motion data of Group I before and at 1 and 6 months after surgery as well as of the control group. Comparisons of %RC and %AB did not show significant differences. No significant changes were observed in the PhAng postoperatively. Values of PhAng were higher than those of the control group both preoperatively and at 1 month after surgery (p = 0.001) but were not different from those of the obese patients 6 months after surgery (p = 0.58). The main findings of this study were that (1) obese patients exhibited a significant decrease in VT without changes in f, leading to a significant decrease in VE in the postoperative period associated with a significant decrease in TI/TTOT 6 months after surgery; (2) compared to the control group, obese patients exhibited significantly higher VE and PhAng preoperatively, which became more similar to the control group postoperatively; and (3) no changes in VT/TI, %RC or %AB in obese patients were observed; also, there were also no differences with respect to the control group in these variables.