Although NPC is a rare malignancy in most parts of the world, it

Although NPC is a rare malignancy in most parts of the world, it is endemic in a few well-defined populations such as the natives in southeast Asia [3], and the incidence of NPC reported in southeast Asia is nearly 20-60 times higher than that reported in the Western countries [4, 5]. Development of NPCs are not well understood, the distinctive racial/ethnic and geographic distribution of NPC worldwide suggest that both genetic traits and environmental selleck products factors contribute to its development. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms could help illuminate the causes

and ultimately the prevention of this remarkable disease. There have been scanty but emerging reports on the importance of cytokines and growth factors in NPC, where most of these investigations have attempted to understand the roles played by cytokines and growth factors during development and chemoprevention in NPC. Of particular interest are the observations that NPC patients showed a lower level of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in plasma, but a high level in tumor tissues and surrounding stroma compared to the healthy controls [6–9]. The TGF-β signaling pathway may play an important role in the carcinogenesis of NPC. TGF-β belongs to a superfamily of structurally- and functionally-related

cytokines, where the members of this family regulate a wide spectrum ACY-241 chemical structure of CB-5083 concentration cellular responses, including cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration and apoptosis [10]. It is now known that TGF-β is a cytokine that is a very potent inhibitor of cellular proliferation in normal cells. Evidence indicates that loss of the anti-proliferative

responsiveness to TGF-β is a characteristic of many tumor cells [11–13], suggesting potential roles of TGF-β and substantial components of the TGF-β signal transduction pathway as tumor suppressors [14]. The Smad proteins are the Farnesyltransferase principal intracellular components of the TGF-β signaling pathway, and it has been demonstrated that Smad proteins represent the most direct mediators for the transmission of signal from the cell surface in the nucleus [15]. Studies have shown that the expression of Smads is frequently altered in human cancers, for example, Smad4 has been found frequently inactivated in pancreatic [16, 17], biliary[18], and colorectal tumors [19]. Increased expression of Smad6 and Smad7 has also been described in human pancreatic and prostate carcinomas [20, 21], respectively. The pathogenesis and the progression of numerous cancers have been attributed to the disruption of normal TGF-β signaling. However, the role of TGF-β signaling in the carcinogenesis of NPC is largely unknown, and it is not clear how NPC cells regulate TGF-β signaling in response to growth. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway may provide a novel target for anticancer therapy.

Blood 2005, 105:1950–1955 PubMedCrossRef 43 Wittchen ES, Worthyl

Blood 2005, 105:1950–1955.PubMedCrossRef 43. Wittchen ES, Worthylake RA, Kelly P, Casey PJ, Quilliam LA, Burridge K: Rap1 GTPase inhibits leukocyte transmigration by promoting endothelial barrier function. J Biol Chem 2005, 280:11675–11682.PubMedCrossRef 44. Birukova AA, Zagranichnaya T, Alekseeva E, Bokoch GM, Birukov KG: Epac/Rap and PKA are novel mechanisms of ANP-induced Rac-mediated pulmonary endothelial Cisplatin ic50 barrier protection. J Cell Physiol 2008, 215:715–724.PubMedCrossRef

45. Gong P, Angelini DJ, Yang S, Xia G, Cross AS, Mann D, et al.: TLR4 signaling is coupled to SRC family kinase activation, tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins, and opening of the paracellular pathway in human lung microvascular endothelia. J Biol Chem 2008, 283:13437–13449.PubMedCrossRef 46. Sakarya S, Rifat S, Zhou J, Bannerman DD, Stamatos NM, Cross AS, et al.: Mobilization of neutrophil sialidase activity desialylates the pulmonary vascular endothelial surface and increases resting neutrophil adhesion to and migration across the endothelium. Glycobiology 2004, 14:481–494.PubMedCrossRef 47. Goldblum SE, Van Epps DE, Reed WP: Serum inhibitor of C5 fragment-mediated polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis associated with chronic hemodialysis.

J Clin Invest 1979, 64:255–264.PubMedCrossRef 48. Sun Sepantronium L, Vitolo M, Passaniti A: Runt-related gene 2 in endothelial cells: inducible expression and specific regulation of cell migration and invasion. Cancer Res 2001, 61:4994–5001.PubMed 49. Matyakhina L, Lenherr SM, Stratakis CA: Protein kinase A and chromosomal stability. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002, 968:148–157.PubMedCrossRef 50. Angelini DJ, Hyun SW, Grigoryev DN, many Garg P, Gong P, Singh IS, et al.: TNF-alpha increases tyrosine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial cadherin and

opens the paracellular pathway through fyn activation in human lung endothelia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2006, 291:L1232-L1245.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions CN was responsible for acquisition of data and writing the manuscript. CF assisted in the isolation of neutrophils, participated in the design of the study and assisted in drafting the manuscript. MZ performed the statistical analysis. AC participated in study design, drafting the manuscript, and revising it critically. SG participated in study design, drafting the manuscript, and revising it critically. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Enteric methane emitted by livestock species is produced by symbiotic methanogens which use as substrates the CO2 and H2 that result from digestion of plant fibers in the gastrointestinal tract of their host. Because it is not assimilated, methane is released into the environment, mostly through eructation [1].

In addition, a selective cultivation approach was used to assess

In addition, a selective cultivation approach was used to assess the culturability of planctomycetes from kelp surfaces. Results Abundance of planctomycetes in kelp surface biofilms Quantification of planctomycetes in samples from July 2007, February 2007 and September 2008 using FISH INK1197 mw showed that they make up a large part of the kelp surface biofilm community in all three sampling occasions. In July and September they dominated Enzalutamide concentration the community, with cells hybridizing with the Planctomycetes-specific probe Pla46

[19] accounting for over 50% of the total DAPI stained cells on average (Table 1 and Figure 1). In February, the planctomycetes were less abundant; with Pla46 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor hybridized cells corresponding to an average of 24% of total DAPI stained cells. Samples that were also subjected to hybridization with the Pir1223 [20] probe showed similar percentages (±1%) of hybridized cells as the with Pla46 probe (results not shown). Inspection of the cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the Pir1223 target sequence was present in all clones except those belonging to the OM190 lineage (see

the following sections) suggesting that the specificity of this probe needs to be reevaluated. The different formamide concentrations (20-40%) used in hybridization with the Pla46 probe did not change the proportion of Pla46 hybridized cells significantly (results not shown). The average proportion of the DAPI stained cells that hybridized with the Eub338 probes was 79% in July, 74% in September and 52% in February (Table Galeterone 1 and Figure 1). Table 1 A summary of the results Sampling time Avg. cells/cm2

(DAPI) ± 1SD Avg.% Eub338 I-III of DAPI ± 1SD Avg.% Pla46 of DAPI ± 1SD % Pla46 of Eub338 I-III No. of clones No. of OTUs (98%) Shannon diversity index Chao1 OTU richness estimate ± SE February 2007 8.2e+06 ± 1.9e+06 51.6 ± 18.5 23.7 ± 9.3 45.9 73 20 2.56 29 ± 12.5 July 2007 7.4e+06 ± 4.8e+06 78.7 ± 5.2 52.5 ± 9.3 66.7 89 9 1.85 9 ± 0.73 September 2008 1.7e+07 ± 6.4e+06 73.6 ± 4.7 50.8 ± 7.2 69.0 89 15 2.32 16 ± 3.4 Figure 1 Abundance of planctomycetes in kelp surface biofilms. The abundance of cells stained by the Planctomycetes specific probe Pla46 and the general bacterial probe Eub338 I-III at three different sampling times as a percentage of total cells (DAPI stained). The height of the bars represents the average percentage values of six individual kelp plants sampled at each sampling occasion. Error bars indicate one standard deviation (± 1SD). Cell distribution of planctomycetes in the biofilms Fluorescence microscopy images of DAPI and FISH stained biofilm cells revealed a complex and variable microscopic landscape.

In the area of land management, participation in monitoring requi

In the area of land management, participation in monitoring requires the involvement of SGC-CBP30 clinical trial different stakeholders: local communities, decision-makers, scientists and NGOs. Its function as a “cornerstone to effective decision-making in natural resource management” makes it a powerful tool for adaptive co-management (Cundill and Fabricius 2009). It promotes social learning and collaboration in environmental management. It is not only considered a cost-effective tool (Danielsen et al. 2005a; Sheil and Lawrence 2004), but also a means to allow feedback

for land management (Armitage et al. 2009; Berkes and Folke 1998; Berkes et al. 2000; Stringer et see more al. 2006). Most studies on participatory monitoring are site-oriented, which makes them descriptive and anecdotal, and it is therefore difficult to extract general guidelines applicable to different scales and situations. Few attempts have been made to link different studies to a theoretical framework. Some authors have

only proposed a characterization of monitoring approaches according to the degree to which local communities are engaged in data gathering and analysis (Danielsen et al. 2008; Evans and Guariguata 2007). Many Vistusertib price case studies show the value, success and interest of land users in the participatory monitoring approach (Andrianandrasana et al. 2005; Danielsen et al. 2005b; Noss et al. 2005; Rijsoort and Jinfeng 2005). They also argue the need to promote the local point of view and participation in decision-making (Danielsen et al. 2005a). A few authors have underlined the limitations and caveats related to participatory monitoring and suggested ways to address them (Garcia and Lescuyer 2008; Poulsen and Luanglath 2005; Webber et al. 2007; Yasue et al. 2010). They highlight the difficulty in scaling up the results for natural resource management decisions. Local people do not always understand the concept of monitoring, and by extension,

the benefits they could receive. Lack of incentives to follow up for long periods and time limitations make monitoring difficult to sustain. According to Leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase these authors, developing a comprehensive framework of long-term participatory monitoring, ensuring local interest, and offering incentives are key issues to be addressed. We agree that incorporating local needs and opinions in all aspects of natural resource management, including monitoring, is a prerequisite for success. In the hope of making local participation more successful and sustainable, we developed a multi-stakeholders’ monitoring system of natural resources, in 6 villages in Northern Laos. We focused on simple tools to assess the availability of important Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs), rather than focusing on biodiversity, a hard to define concept.

Bioorganic Med Chem 13:1195–1200CrossRef Paluchowska MH, Bugno R,

Bioorganic Med Chem 13:1195–1200CrossRef Paluchowska MH, Bugno R, Duszyńska B, Tatarczyńska E, Nikiforuk A, Lenda T, Pifithrin-�� molecular weight Chojnacka-Wójcik E (2007) The influence of modifications in imide fragment structure on 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor affinity and in vivo pharmacological properties of some new 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazines. Bioorganic Med Chem 15:7116–7125CrossRef Pauwels PJ (2003) 5-HT receptors and their ligands. Tocris Rev 25:1–10 Rudnick G, Kirk KL, Fishkes H, Schuldiner S (1989) Zwitterionic and anionic forms of serotonin

analog as transport substrates. J Biol Chem 264(25):14865–14868PubMed this website Zagórska A, Jurczyk S, Pawłowski M, Dybała M, Nowak G, Tatarczyńska E, Nikiforuk A, Chojnacka-Wójcik E (2009) Synthesis and preliminary pharmacological Selleckchem GDC-0449 evaluation of imidazo[2, 1-f]purine-2, 4-dione derivatives. Eur J Med Chem 44:4288–4296PubMedCrossRef”
“Introduction Isothioureas are a class of amphiphilic compounds carrying a highly basic isothiourea function of pKa ≈ 10. Therefore, at physiological pH these compounds exist in a protonated (cationic)

form that may be important for their specific biological effects. In solid state they form salts of usually better water solubility then that of the substrates used for their synthesis. Reports on anticancer activity of isothioureas are very scarce. S-(10-undecen-1-yl)isothiouronium iodide was found to be effective against Walker carcinoma cells in rats (Carmona Liothyronine Sodium and Gonzalez-Cadavid, 1978; Gonzalez-Cadavid and Herrera Quijada, 1974), and bisisothiouronium derivatives of thiophene were reported to show activity against Yoshida sarcoma (Gogte et al., 1967). Recently, a report showing proapoptotic activity of a number of pentabromobenzylisothiourea derivatives with substantial cytotoxicity toward human glioblastoma cells has been published. The efficacy of the latter compounds was

higher than that of the well-known casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitor 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole (TBB), and was similar to that of 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (TBI). Cell death induced in rat and human malignant glioma cells by the pentabromobenzylisothiourea derivatives was associated with a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and with activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7 followed by PARP cleavage (Kaminska et al., 2009). More attention was given to isothioureas as inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms. These enzymes play a significant and multifaceted role in both physiology and pathology; therefore, there is an ongoing search for their effective inhibitors (Garvey et al., 1994; Jin et al., 2009; Rairigh et al., 1998; Kalish et al., 2002).

Some evidence suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation may alleviate

Some evidence suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation may alleviate the exercise-induced impairment in the neural functions. NaHCO3 supplementation has been shown to increase muscle fiber conduction velocity and reduce force decline in sustained maximal contraction after a 50-min submaximal cycling [22]. An in vitro study also revealed that alkalosis induced by high [HCO3-] resulted in an increase in twitch

tension in isolated rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm after electrical stimulations [37]. Therefore, it is possible that NaHCO3 could help to restore certain level of neural functions after the simulated match, resulting in the better skilled Selleckchem PS 341 performance in the bicarbonate trial. The effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on neural functions requires further research. It has been argued that intracellular H+ and lactate may not be the major factors in muscular KU-60019 fatigue [38–41]. Similarly, this study showed that NaHCO3 supplementation could prevent fatigue-induced decline in performance on the condition of moderate blood [lactate] and unchanged blood pH. The predominant energy

selleck source of the short, high-intensity strokes in the Loughborough Tennis Skill Test is phosphocreatine (PCr) because blood [lactate] was only 0.9 ± 0.1 mM after the test [4]. Some studies have proposed that the supplementation of NaHCO3 could reduce PCr degradation and increase the power output required to induce the onset of rapid increase in [inorganic phosphate (Pi)]/[PCr] in forearm muscles during incremental wrist-flexion exercise to volitional fatigue [42, 43]. However, creatine supplementation had no effect on power and accuracy of tennis strokes in studies of which test protocols were similar to the present study [44, 45]. These results suggested that muscle acidosis and creatine Atorvastatin content may not be the major factors in the decline in skilled tennis performance

as exemplified in this study. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test is an optimal method for measuring the fatigue-induced decline in tennis skills as the accuracy of service and groundstroke was significantly declined after volitional fatigue [4]. In addition, the groundstroke accuracy was significantly decreased after the middle of the test [6]. Our results also showed that the consistency of service and forehand ground stroke was impaired after a simulated match in the placebo trial, while it was maintained in the bicarbonate trial. The current study presented the similar skill level of players to those in the previous studies [4, 6]. In Davey et al. [4] the average accuracy and consistency scores of service (out of 20) were 4.0 and 9.0, respectively. The average accuracy and consistency scores (out of 20) were 1.5 and 11.3 for forehand ground stroke and 1.8 and 10.

A majority of the proteins in this data set are predicted to resi

A majority of the proteins in this data set are predicted to reside in the cytoplasm (14 proteins) and cell nucleus (9 proteins). Six proteins are predicted to function in the extracellular space while four proteins are thought to be located on the plasma membrane. Other than cellular location, the host genes were also categorized on the

basis of the expressed protein’s function – i.e. enzyme, cytokine, transporter, transcriptional regulator, or other. For the thirty-six gene subset, Table 1 also lists the fold change found within the separate mock treated and CAM treated microarrays, respectively, as well as the fold difference between the arrays. C. burnetii infected host cells had lower RNA levels of twenty-two host genes relative to cells containing C. burnetii transiently inhibited EPZ004777 nmr with CAM. RNA levels of fourteen genes in this data set are found to be higher due to C. burnetii infection when compared to the CAM treated condition. Bioinformatic analysis conducted to determine possible biological functions of these C. burnetii modulated

host genes indicates that immune response and cellular movement, cellular signaling, cellular proliferation, cell death, lipid metabolism, molecular transport, as well as vesicle trafficking, and cytoskeletal organization are affected by C. burnetii protein synthesis (Table 1). These data indicate that the click here expression of vital genes involved in cellular movement – IL8, CCL2, CXCL1, SPP1 (cytokines) are suppressed via C. burnetii’s protein synthesis in mock treated conditions when compared to CAM

find more treated conditions. These secretory molecules (IL8, CCL2, CXCL1, SPP1) regulate the infiltration and trafficking of immune cells. Table 1 shows other crucial host Amylase genes specifically suppressed by C. burnetii protein synthesis in THP-1 infection such as BCL3, CTSB and CTSL1 (apoptosis), MTSS1, SMTN and PLEKHO1 (cytoskeleton organization), APOE, PLIN2 and FABP4 (lipid metabolism), and RAB20, SOD2, PSMA8, MSC, ZFP36L1, and RORA (Miscellaneous). The prominent genes found to be up-regulated (induced) due to C. burnetii’s protein synthesis are ITK, DUSP9 & SKP2 (intracellular signaling), SOX11, HELLS & PGR (cell growth and proliferation) SLC22A6, CDH2, PSD4, ZNF573, CHMP5 & MRPL44 (Miscellaneous) and ANLN (cytoskeleton organization). Table 1 Differentially expressed host genes modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Cellular Function Gene Symbol Cellular location Predicted Function(s) -CAM1 +CAM2 FD3   CTSB Cytoplasm peptidase 3.102 6.565 ↑3.463 Apoptosis CTSL1 Cytoplasm peptidase 3.173 6.914 ↑3.741   BCL3 Nucleus transcription regulator 3.103 5.673 ↑2.57   C11ORF82 Cytoplasm other -1.849 -4.912 ↓3.062 Cell proliferation SOX11 Nucleus transcription regulator 3.127 -2.915 ↓6.042   HELLS Nucleus enzyme -1.551 -4.653 ↓3.101   PGR Nucleus ligand-depend. nuclear recept. -1.539 -6.853 ↓5.

CrossRef 6 Kindyak AS, Kindyak VV, Gremenok

VF: Energy-g

CrossRef 6. Kindyak AS, Kindyak VV, Gremenok

VF: Energy-gap variations in thin laser-deposited Cu (In, Ga)Se2 films. Mater Lett 1996, 28:273–275.CrossRef 7. Yoshida A, Tanahashi N, Tanaka T, Demizu Y, Yamamoto Y, Yamaguchi T: Preparation of CuInSe 2 thin films with large grain by excimer laser ablation. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 1998, 50:7–12.CrossRef 8. Victora P, Nagarajub J, Krupanidhia SB: Geneticin manufacturer pulsed excimer laser ablated copper indium diselenide thin films. Solid State Commun 2000, 116:649–653.CrossRef 9. Jo YH, Mohanty BC, Cho YS: Enhanced electrical properties of pulsed laser-deposited CuIn 0.7 Ga 0.3 Se 2 thin films via processing control. Sol Energy 2010, 84:2213–2218.CrossRef 10. Tsai MG, Tung HT, Chen IG, Chen CC, Wu YF, Qi X, Hwu Y, Lin CY, Wu PH, Cheng CW: Annealing effect on the properties of Cu(In 0.7 Ga 0.3 )Se 2 thin films grown by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition. J Am Ceram Soc 2013, 96:2419–2423.CrossRef 11. CP673451 in vivo Verhoff B, Harilal SS, Freeman Peptide 17 chemical structure JR, Diwakar PK, Hassanein A: Dynamics of femto- and nanosecond laser ablation plumes investigated using optical emission spectroscopy. J Appl Phys 2012, 112:093303.CrossRef 12. Balling P, Schou J: Femtosecond-laser ablation dynamics of dielectrics: basics and applications for thin films. Rep

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(B) Wild type or aphB mutant containing a P toxT -luxCDABE repor

(B). Wild type or aphB mutant containing a P toxT -GDC-0068 molecular weight luxCDABE reporter

plasmid with or without pBAD-tcpPH AG-881 concentration were grown under the AKI condition. 0.01% arabinose was added to induce P BAD -tcpPH. Lux expression (blue bars) was measured and normalized against toxT expression in wild type. The results are the average of three experiments ± SD. Conclusion The ToxR regulon is the classic virulence gene regulation pathway in V. cholerae. In this pathway, AphA and AphB activate tcpP transcriptional expression directly by binding to different promoter regions of tcpP. ToxR and TcpP cooperate in turn by binding different sites of the toxT promoter to activate transcription, leading to the production of the virulence factors TCP and CT. However, mTOR inhibitor the full ToxR regulon is more complex than previously thought. In this paper, we showed that AphA and AphB are also necessary for full ToxR production at the stationary phase. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AphB is sufficient for toxR transcriptional activation in the heterogenic host E. coli through binding of the toxR promoter region. Thus, the effect of AphB on ToxR levels propagates further in the transcription cascade, increasing the transcription of a key gene in V. cholerae pathogenesis, toxT. We have

therefore identified another factor responsible for altering end product levels in the V. cholerae virulence axis. Since AphB is at the top of a virulence cascade with multiple end pathways, it appears now that AphB is a central factor in switching the cell from an environmental state to a virulent one. Since it activates ToxR in addition to TcpP, and further influences porin expression, AphB is a divergence point at which nonlinearity is introduced into the V. cholerae virulence pathway. Eukaryotic cells have extremely

complex networks of protein and DNA interactions leading to precise control of protein expression levels. Having a more complex network of transcriptional activation and repression in the V. cholerae virulence cascade could enable the bacterial cell to fine-tune its expression levels to optimize its ability to colonize the intestine and spread to other hosts. Methods Bacterial strains, plasmids and media All experiments were performed with El Tor Vibrio cholerae C6706 [30] or Escherichia coli DH5α, which were grown in RG7420 LB with relevant antibiotics at 37°C, except where noted. V. cholerae virulence genes were induced in vitro (the AKI condition) as previously described [22]. Briefly, 3 ml of AKI medium was inoculated with 0.5 μl of overnight culture and incubated for 4 hrs at 37°C without agitation. 1 ml of culture was transferred to a fresh tube and incubated with shaking for a further 4 hrs at 37°C. P toxR -luxCDABE fusion plasmid was constructed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the toxR promoter regions, ranging from 450 bp, 300 bp, to 130 bp, respectively, and cloning them into the pBBRlux vector [20].

Nosocomial MDRAB infections are usually transmitted between patie

Nosocomial MDRAB infections are usually transmitted between patients by contaminated health-care personnel [11]. Therefore, there is growing interest in controlling the spread of

MDRAB caused by health-care workers, contaminated equipment, and ICU environments through disinfection methods. To date, several disinfection techniques have been evaluated for inactivating A. baumannii, including pasteurization [12], ultraviolet light [13], chemical sanitizers [14–16], ozone [17], and photocatalysis [18]. These sterilization techniques are highly effective in reducing A. baumannii contamination, but may be harmful to humans or surface materials in the ICU environment. Moreover, extensive use of chemicals can cause bacteria to develop resistance to chemical

sanitizers [16, 19]. For example, the growth and virulence of MDRAB are enhanced following exposure to ethanol and alcohol-based hand rubs [20]. Thus, there is an immediate need to develop alternative strategies for preventing buy Ruxolitinib the spread of MDRAB. Bacteriophages (phages) are natural parasites of bacteria and are extremely host-specific. Therefore, the use of phages to reduce the concentration of specific bacterial foodborne pathogens has gained increasing attention [21–24]. For example, phages have been used to treat foods contaminated with strains of Campylobacter[22], Enterobacter[25], Escherichia coli O157 [26], Listeria[23], Salmonella[27], and SB203580 clinical trial Staphylococcus[28, 29]. The levels of these bacterial pathogens have been successfully reduced by 1–5 logs, depending upon the method used. Moreover, the United States Food and Drug Administration has already approved the use of a Listeria-specific phage, Listex P100, for food preservation [30]. Although these studies suggest that bacteriophages might be highly effective in reducing MDRAB levels, this has not been studied in detail. Although phages can significantly reduce the amount of pathogenic bacteria in liquid foods [22–24], the use of phages to reduce the levels of bacteria on hard surfaces has rarely been studied. Culture-positive swab samples of MDRAB have been recovered from

frequently touched surfaces in ICUs [14, 31]. These observations indicate the Reverse transcriptase possible role of environmental surfaces in the spread of MDRAB [32]. Liquid suspensions containing a high concentration of phages allow the free diffusion of phages to ensure contact with their specific host [23]. However, for hard surfaces, an uneven and large surface area may limit the distribution of phage particles and decrease their ability to reach their bacterial targets [26]. This is especially true for low concentrations of bacteria that are unevenly distributed in the environment [33]. Therefore, the effects of phage concentration, host cell concentration and incubation time (the duration of phage contact with bacteria) on the degree of biocontrol on hard surfaces should be further investigated.