24, df = 1, 22, p = 0.63, partial eta2 = 0.01) or turn (F = 1.09, df = 3, 66, p = 0.36, partial eta2 = 0.05). Of the total turns the top ranked dancers performed 42.7% NC and 22.1% NS which was similar to selleck chem inhibitor the low ranked dancers (39.6% NC and 24.2% NS). However for reverse turns the top ranked dancers performed 5.7% RC and 29.4% RS which was different (chi-square = 8.199, df = 3, p < 0.05, phi = 0.12) to the low ranked dancers (12.1% RC and 24.2% RS). Thus, the top ranked dancers performed less of their reverse turns on a curved trajectory (16%; i.e. 5.7/(5.7+29.4)) than straight (84%), which was a lower proportion than the lower ranked dancers (33%; i.e. 12.1/(12.1+24.2)). No differences were found in the duration of natural turns or reverse turns on a straight trajectory between the top and lower ranked couples.
However, the top ranked couples performed reverse turns on a curved trajectory significantly slower than the lower ranked couples ( Table 1 ). (e.g. insert Table 1 here) Table 1 Descriptive statistics and t-test results for the time of single full turns between the top and lower ranked couples. The top ranked couples performed the turns significantly quicker than the lower ranked couples (F = 7.30, df = 1, 22, p < 0.05, partial eta2 = 0.25). However, it appeared that the greatest differences were for reverse turns (12.43% faster for curved trajectory, 8.42% straight) compared to natural turns (7.04% faster for curved trajectory, 6.74% straight; Table 2 ). (e.g. insert Table 2 here) Table 2 Descriptive statistics and t-test results for mean speed of single full turns between the top and lower ranked couples .
When within couple differences were examined it was clear that the top ranked couples performed reverse and natural turns at similar speeds for both straight (t = 0.170, df = 133, p = 0.866) and curved trajectories (t = 0.675, df = 125, p = 0.501). Similarly the lower ranked couples also performed reverse and natural turns at similar speeds when on a straight trajectory (t = 0.677, df = 142, p = 0.499) but were significantly slower on reverse turns (mean = 1.85m/s) in comparison to natural turns (mean = 1.99m/s) when on a curved trajectory (t = 3.077, df = 152, p < 0.01; Table 2 ). One-way ANOVAs showed that the top ranked dancers performed all of their turns at similar speeds (F = 1.31, df = 3, p = 0.
27) whereas the lower ranked dancers performed their turns at different speeds (F = 3.95, df = 3, p < 0.01). Post hoc Scheff�� tests showed that the low ranked dancers performed the NC quicker than the RC (p < 0.05). Discussion Dances are performed in time to the same tempo of music in Batimastat the Viennese waltz suggesting that movement speeds would be similar between couples. This study analysed the quantity and speed of turns to determine whether there were differences between top and lower ranked couples. It was noted that the number of dancers on the dance floor dictated the total duration of a dance.