5) Hence, the levels of release of RANTES, IL-8 and MIP-1β stimu

5). Hence, the levels of release of RANTES, IL-8 and MIP-1β stimulated by a fixed dose of anti-αVβ3 mAb were elevated by co-stimulation with increasing concentrations of anti-αXβ2 mAb (Fig. 5a). A similar outcome was observed using a fixed αXβ2 mAb concentration and increasing doses of anti-αVβ3 (Fig. 5b). The data suggest that these mAbs, that are most effective in promoting cytokine secretion from THP-1 cells, are able to cooperate

to promote higher levels of cytokine release. The data of this report demonstrate that stimulation of integrins that bind sCD23 promotes release of cytokines from human monocytic cells. The dominant feature of the cytokine release signature driven by sCD23 itself MK-1775 molecular weight comprises a pronounced elevation in IL-8 secretion, a modest rise in RANTES release and no secretion of MIP-1β. Ligation of individual integrins did not mimic this cytokine release pattern, CH5424802 cost though stimulation of αXβ2 or αVβ3 promoted release of IL-8 and RANTES, consistent with sCD23-driven release, but also enhanced MIP-1β

secretion. Stimulation of αMβ2 and αVβ5 integrins did not promote release of cytokines similar to those released following sCD23 treatment of the cells. Triggering of cytokine release via integrins was dependent on both the epitope recognized by the mAb and the state of differentiation of the target cell; less mature cells released higher levels of cytokine. The broad patterns of cytokine release from CD23-stimulated monocytes noted in this report are generally consistent with those of other investigators assessing secretion of individual cytokines. Hence, in initial studies, sCD23 stimulation of monocytes Evodiamine was demonstrated to promote release of IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α and GM-CSF, but not IL-10, IL-12 or transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)40; the data of Fig. 2 in this report show a prominent elevation of IL-8 secretion and an equally consistent absence of TGF-β release. Other groups using sCD23 fusion proteins and anti-β2 integrin antibodies showed strong release

of IL-1β,19 MIP-1α and MIP-1β.20 In our study, we noted a strong MIP-1β release when targeting the αXβ2 and a less pronounced secretion when αMβ2 was ligated, in keeping with previous findings.20 However, we did not note a significant release of MIP-1α. This may reflect either an intrinsic property of the THP-1 cell line, or might be related to the epitopes recognized by the different antibodies used in the two studies. The principle that is consistent in all the above studies is that sCD23 triggers release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines from monocytic cells and so could be considered to lie ‘upstream’ of the effects of these inflammatory mediators and to be closer to an initiating stimulus in inflammatory states.

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