6 μM doxorubicin, 0.025 μM paclitaxel or 10 μM etoposide) for 48 hours were harvested by trypsinization and subjected to annexin V/propidium iodide apoptosis detection assay using a FACS flow cytometer. The percentage of apoptotic cells was counted (Figure 3A, areas 2 and 3). Similar results were obtained
in three selleck chemicals llc independent experiments. Errors bar represent the standard error of the mean (p < 0.05). Table 2 Comparison of the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, paclitaxel or etoposideon on parental EC109 and EC109/R subline. IC50(uM) Cells Cisplatin 5-Fluorouracil Doxorubicin Paclitaxel Etoposide EC109 10.99 923.8 0.67 0.0263 9.46 EC109/R 19.24 299 0.294 0.0169 7.69 Resistance index* 1.75 0.324 0.44 0.64 0.81 *Resistance index = (IC50 on EC109/R)/(IC50 on EC109) Discussion Ionizing radiation (IR) is a potent agent in enhancing tumor control of locally advanced cancer and has been shown to improve disease-free and overall survival in several entities. Approximately 50%–70% of all cancer patients receive
radiotherapy during their treatment. Advances in tumor imaging and physical targeting of IR and optimization of IR delivery schedules from single treatments to continuous irradiation have yielded significant improvements in patient outcome . Nonetheless, many tumors are poorly controlled by radiotherapy alone. Radio-resistance is an obstacle in cancer therapy and affects the curability of patients. Chronic exposure of cells to IR induces an adaptive response that results in enhanced tolerance to the subsequent Quisinostat cytotoxicity
Farnesyltransferase of IR . In the present study, radio-resistant subline EC109/R was obtained by exposing the human ESCC cell line with 80 Gy of fractionated X-rays over an 8-month period. This results in a statistically significant decreased in the radiosensitivity of the exposed subline as messured by clonogenic assay. But the growth of EC109/R was similar to that of the parental cell line (Figure 2). One explanation for the increased radio-resistance might be an adaptive response to the selective pressure of repeated radiation. We observed that the radio-resistant subline maintained a radio-resistant phenotype for at least 2 months after cessation of fractionated irradiation in the absence of further treatment (data not shown). Over the past several years, it has become increasingly evident that Barasertib mouse esophageal cancer is a disease that is potentially sensitive to chemotherapy. Recent data suggest that multimodal therapy is superior to single chemotherapy. Chemo-radiotherapy can be delivered as a definitive local therapy without surgery in the treatment of esophageal cancer . The survival rates for chemo-radiation at 5 and 8 years were 32% and 22%, respectively. However, the optimal chemotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer remains unsettled, and there is no single standard regimen.