In the next subsections, we will illustrate the protective effect

In the next subsections, we will illustrate the protective effects mediated by Ab–FcR interactions in the context of a selection of infections with intracellular bacteria and parasites. Legionella pneumophila are Gram-negative bacteria that, when inhaled, can infect and replicate within alveolar macrophages and cause a severe form of pneumonia known as Legionnaire’s disease. Upon contact with the macrophage, L. pneumophila uses its Icm/Dot type IV secretion system (T4SS)

to inject a large number of effector proteins into the cytosol of the Pifithrin-�� chemical structure host cell 63. This promotes phagocytosis and modulates trafficking within the host cell, resulting in the evasion of phagolysosomal fusion and the establishment of a replication-permissive vacuole 64. We have recently shown that this Icm/Dot T4SS-mediated subversion of trafficking within the host cell does not take place in the presence of specific Abs as, in such circumstances, L. pneumophila is targeted to lysosomes and can no longer replicate intracellularly 65. Thus, opsonized L. pneumophila are targeted selleck kinase inhibitor into

degradative pathways, indicating that specific Abs can effectively oppose the events initiated by the T4SS. The opsonization of L. pneumophila with specific Abs does not interfere with the function of the T4SS itself but it is actually the cross-linking of activating FcRs on the surface of macrophages that renders these host cells nonpermissive for intracellular replication of L. pneumophila. The importance of FcR triggering for this protective effect was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo; however, the lysosomal targeting of L. pneumophila is not simply a direct consequence of FcR-mediated endocytosis and subsequent phagolysosomal fusion since macrophages, which had received an FcR trigger before infection with nonopsonized bacteria, also effectively targeted L. pneumophila to lysosomal compartments and hence did not permit

their intracellular replication 65. These learn more results suggest that FcR cross-linking induces a signaling cascade that effectively counteracts the modulation of host cell trafficking by Legionella effectors and redirects the bacteria to lysosomes where they are degraded. By arresting phagosome maturation M. tuberculosis survives and replicates in membrane-bound compartments in macrophages 66. Ab responses have long been believed to play a negligible or even detrimental role in protection against this intracellular bacterium, whereas cell-mediated immunity was assigned to be crucial in resolving infections. Nevertheless, newer findings implicate a role for Abs in protection against mycobacterial infections 67, 68. mAbs of the IgG3 or IgG1 subclass recognizing surface Ags of M. tuberculosis such as the carbohydrate lipoarabinomannan (LAM) have been shown to prolong survival of intratracheally or intravenously M.

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