Patients with scores ≥4 are in need of (additional) treatment. The original MDQ was translated into Dutch by two independent translators. The resulting consensus translation was then back translated into English by a native English mental health professional. In a consensus meeting where attention was paid to both semantic and conceptual equivalence, the three of them reviewed and approved the final version (Postma and Schulte, 2008). The MDQ has three sections. The first section has 13 yes/no BD items derived from the DSM-IV criteria
(American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and from clinical experience (section A). The MDQ screen is regarded to be positive if seven or more items from section A are present, if several of these items co-occur (section B) and if they caused moderate or OSI-744 datasheet serious problems (section C). Since substance use can mimic bipolar symptoms we added two questions to the original MDQ. First, participants were asked whether any of the endorsed section A symptoms ever happened during an episode with little or no substance use
(section D). Second, participants were asked whether they ever had an episode without section A symptoms in which they felt their normal self (section E). In summary: the MDQ classic is considered positive if sections A, B and C are fulfilled, whereas Dabrafenib manufacturer the adjusted MDQ is considered positive if the requirements for sections A, B, C, D and E are fulfilled. BD and SUD were assessed using the mood and substance use disorders sections of the SCID-I/P, Dutch version (Groenesteijn van et Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II al., 1998). BD included BD-I, BD-II and BD-NOS. ADHD was diagnosed with the ADHD section of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) (Robins et al., 1981), and BPD and APD with the borderline
and antisocial personality disorder sections of the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV) (Pfohl et al., 1997). At baseline, i.e., three days after intake (T0), all patients were asked to complete the MDQ. At T1, i.e., after another 1–2 weeks all still abstinent patients with a positive score on the MDQ at T0 and a random 1:4 sample of patients with a negative score on the MDQ at T0 were, after they had provided written informed consent, invited to complete the MDQ again and the diagnostic assessments (SCID-1/P, DIS, SIDP-IV, MMSE). These diagnostic assessments were performed by specially trained research psychologists who were blind for the MDQ score at T0. This assessment (T1) was performed later in order to avoid contamination by intoxication or withdrawal symptoms possibly still present at T0. All assessments were monitored by psychiatrists (JvZ or BvdB).