The mixture was incubated for 4–6 h at 37 °C For the CD36 gene d

The mixture was incubated for 4–6 h at 37 °C. For the CD36 gene digestion, Neisseria denitrificans I (NdeI) enzyme and buffer O (Fermentas Life Sciences, Pretoria, South Africa) were used. After 6 h of digestion, the mixture was heated at 65 °C for 20 min to stop the enzymatic reaction. Restriction digestion products, PCR products and molecular weight markers were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis to observe band sizes hence subject genotypes. The mixture was composed of the following: 3% (w/v) agarose powder and 100 ml of Tris EDTA buffer

(1× TE buffer) (Fermentas Life Sciences). The mixture was boiled for 10–20 min with continuous stirring to obtain homogeneous molten gel which was suitable to resolve all fragment sizes. The gel was left to cool for 5–10 min to 50 °C. To every 100 ml of the agarose gel, 5 μl of 10 mg/ml ethidium Trichostatin A bromide (Sigma Aldrich Chemicals) was added to make final concentration of 0.5 μg/ml of ethidium bromide. The molten gel was mixed well

and poured into the electrophoresis gel casting equipment and left to polymerize for 15–30 min at room temperature. PCR products, restriction digestion products and DNA molecular weight markers (Fermentas Life Sciences) were loaded onto the wells as 1 μl of 6× loading dye (10 mm Tris–HCl, 0.03% bromophenolblue, 0.03% xylene cyanol FF, 60% glycerol, 60 mm EDTA) in 10 μl of sample and run in 1× TE buffer at constant voltage of 120 V for 25–30 min. Vincristine ic50 The DNA marker FX174/HinfI (Fermentas Life Science) with fragment size range from 24 to 726 bp was used to determine the various band sizes for the samples. The wild-type allele gave two fragments of 148 and 64 bp. The homozygous mutant was uncut and ran as a single band of 212 bp. The heterozygous allele gave a

mixture of the three fragments from the wild-type and the mutant allele, i.e., 212, 148 and 64 bp. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).  The indirect ELISA was performed as described Thalidomide elsewhere [21]. Microtitre plates (Maxisorb 439454; NUNC) were coated with 100 μl of recombinant MSP-119 (1 μg/ml in PBS). Plates were incubated overnight at 4 °C and blocked with 200 μl of 5% milk powder and 0.1% Tween-20 in PBS for 1 h. One hundred microlitres of plasma samples diluted 1:200 were added in duplicate and incubated at room temperature for 2 h. Plates were washed four times between steps. Peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-human IgG (Dako, Glostrup, Denmark) diluted 1:8000 was added to antigen-coated plates. Bound secondary antibodies for total IgG were quantified by staining with ready-to-use TMB (3, 3′ 5, 5′-tetramethylbenzidine) substrate for 30 min. One hundred microlitres of 0.25 m sulphuric acid were added to ELISA plates to stop reaction.

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