To delineate findings that might have implications as to the caus

To delineate findings that might have implications as to the cause of MD, we have studied rigidly selected patient populations with unilateral and bilateral MD\n\nStudy Design: Prospective cohort.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Patients with a potential VX-680 purchase diagnosis of MD underwent extensive evaluations (audiometric, radiologic, and immunologic), and only patients with idiopathic MD were included in this study. Bilaterality of disease was based on clinical and audiometric criteria. Variables identified as part of the evaluation were subjected to statistical analyses to determine

if significant differences existed in the characteristics of patients in the unilateral and bilateral groups\n\nResults: Patients with bilateral disease presented at a significantly younger age and had a significantly higher incidence of a personal history of migraines and a family history of MD. None of the other identified variables were found to be significantly different.\n\nConclusion: Patients with bilateral MD have

a higher incidence of migraines and of a family history of MD. Implications as to disease pathogenesis are discussed.”
“The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is related to quality of oocytes and embryos. The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA levels of IGF1 and IGF2 and their receptors, IGFR1 and IGFR2, as well as IGFBP2, IGFBP4, and PAPP-A in oocytes from Nelore compared to Holstein cows. Pools of oocytes (20 oocytes/pool) from Nelore (n = 8 pools) and Holstein (n = 4 pools) were obtained via ovum pick-up (OPU, 10 sessions) and cumulus cells and zona pellucida were removed. The pools were submitted to total RNA extraction. Expression of members of the IGF system was assessed by real time RT-PCR. The mRNA expression of IGF1 and IGF2, IGF1 and IGFR2, IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 was significantly higher

(P < learn more 0.01) in oocytes from Holstein whereas the expression of PAPP-A was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in oocytes from Nelore cows. The high PAPP-A expression and the low expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 are associated with more efficient degradation of IGFBPs, which results in greater bioavailability of IGF in Nelore oocytes when compared to the Holstein. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The article presents an evaluation of different terrain point extraction algorithms for airborne laser scanning (ALS) point clouds. The research area covers eight test sites with varying point densities in the range 3-15 points m(-2) and different surface topography as well as land-cover characteristics. In this article, existing implementations of algorithms were considered. Approaches that are based on mathematical morphology, progressive densification, robust surface interpolation, and segmentation are compared. The results are described based on qualitative and quantitative analyses. A quantification of the qualitative analyses is presented and applied to the data sets in this example.

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