001). Examination of sequencing
data from PCR products taken from this cohort suggests a dichotomy between the Helicobacter species identified in each group (unpublished data). Attempts to culture these organisms from adult colonic tissue have proved negative to date. We have followed the adult studies presented Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor above with a retrospective examination of paediatric IBD, utilizing FISH alone to examine archival colonic tissue held in pathology storage. This small study examined distal colonic tissue from the rectum or sigmoid of 23 patients with CD, 23 with UC and 15 controls (Hansen et al., 2009). The controls had undergone colonoscopy for a variety of reasons, but their assessment demonstrated a macroscopically and microscopically normal colon. Non-pylori check details Helicobacter were demonstrated
in 83% of CD patients, 87% of UC patients and 40% of controls. The IBD groups were both significantly higher in prevalence than the control cohort (P=0.013 and 0.004, respectively). The organisms seen appeared to be present within the remnants of the mucosal layer (see Fig. 2), which fits with the observations of Zhang et al. (2006). In one case, a large cloud of organisms was visualized adjacent to the colonic epithelial surface (Fig. 3). Unfortunately, the methodology in use for this study has prevented the identification of these organisms to the species level. Work is now underway to recruit children throughout Scotland during their first presentation with IBD in order to identify these organisms to the species level and culture them for use in further experiments. Keenan et al. (2008) investigated colonic mucosal DNA for Helicobacter from 100 patients in New Zealand (of whom 14 had IBD, 18 had adenomatous RVX-208 polyps, 34 had no macroscopic or microscopic abnormalities, and the remaining 34 can be presumed to have other colonic pathologies including lipoma and diverticulosis,
but they are not described in detail). Biopsies were taken from up to four distinct sites (terminal ileum, caecum, transverse colon, recto-sigmoid) and PCR primers targeting the Helicobacter and Wolinella genera were utilized. Seventy of 354 biopsies were deemed positive, with 35% of patients positive in at least one site. The positivity rate was similar between sites and ranged between 17.5% (terminal ileum) and 21.5% (caecum). Analysis of sequenced product identified H. pylori in the majority of patients (n=18, 18%) and W. succinogenes in four (4%). Nine sequences did not match any in the blast database, while one was a close match to H. fennelliae. There did not appear to be any association between the presence of Helicobacter organisms and colonic disease, although this may be in part due to the low pick-up rate of non-pylori Helicobacter organisms in this study. The most recent group to offer data on Helicobacter in IBD is the French group of Laharie et al.