Species names and years based on data in Mycobank Diagnostics and molecular detection The oomycetes can be challenging to isolate or identify and there are many instances where differentiating the economically important species,
which are often also quarantine pathogens, from the ubiquitous and innocuous ones is very difficult. Antibody technologies provide cheap and user friendly diagnostic tools and are still used extensively in virology and bacteriology. In mycology such technology has been rarely developed for diagnostics but they have been used in oomycetes (e.g. Kox et al. 2007; Cahill and Hardham 1994). As mentioned above, DNA selleck chemical sequence databases are quite comprehensive for some genera of oomycetes and polymorphisms have been exploited extensively to develop DNA-based molecular assays. A comprehensive certification system for Phytophthora fragariae in Alvocidib in vivo strawberry was one of the early ones developed and was discussed as
a case study in Martin et al. (2000). Many PCR assays were developed for P. ramorum (e.g. Tomlinson et al. 2007; Bilodeau et al. 2007; Tooley et al. 2006; Martin et al. 2004; Hughes et al. 2006; Hayden et al. 2006), to the point of causing some confusion in the international regulatory community as to which one should be routinely used. The international ring trial to evaluate several of these methods simultaneously with the same samples should become a model for other pathogens (Martin et al. 2009). The first DNA array system in mycology or plant pathology was developed for oomycetes (Lévesque et al. 1998) and an array with all known species of Pythium was developed for direct detection in soil (Tambong et al. 2006). The lab-on-a-chip is the Holy Grail in diagnostics and such a device was recently developed for selected Phytophthora species (Julich et al. 2011), showing again that there is leardership in the oomycete scientific community. The cloned and sequenced PCR products obtained directly from soil using oomycete-specific primers showed a wide range of unidentifiable sequences because they were either new species or known
species without LSU sequences in GenBank (Arcate et al. 2006). This kind of work used to be very time consuming. There is no doubt that there will be a rapidly increasing number of environmental sequences buy Gefitinib obtained by using the next generations of sequencing technologies such as pyrosequencing which no longer require cloning before sequencing. Having reliable and comprehensive reference sequence databases for these see more markers will be more important than ever. Genomics Oomycete researchers have been at the forefront of plant microbe interactions and the spectacular advances in oomycete genetics and genomics are well covered in a recent book (Lamour and Kamoun 2009) whereas some of the early work in recombinant DNA technology was mentioned above.