For each ward, we determined the instantaneous rate of change of

For each ward, we determined the instantaneous rate of change of hunter density between 1978 and 2002. Results Total population numbers of buffalo in the protected area Figure 2 shows the changes in

total numbers of buffalo in the Serengeti National find more Park since 1965. At that time the population was recovering from the impacts of the viral disease, rinderpest, and numbers subsequently increased to a peak of 74,237 in 1975 (Sinclair 1977). Shortly after that, in 1977, anti-hunting activities were severely restricted by an economic crisis in Tanzania (Hilborn et al. 2006; Sinclair and Arcese 1995b) and widespread hunting on this species (and others) followed (Dublin et al. 1990a). By 1992 anti-hunting efforts had returned but the population had been reduced to 36,119 animals, some 49% of the peak number. The sharp decline to 21,186 buffalo in 1994 reflects the effect of a severe drought amounting to an additional mortality of 42% of the remaining population. Since 1998 the population has slowly increased. The most recent census (2008) of buffalo recorded 28,524 individuals in Serengeti National Park. Because these

are total counts there are no sampling SC79 cost errors associated with the data. However, bias errors have been calculated, accommodated by technique design and kept constant over the years (Mduma and Hopcraft 2008; Sinclair 1972). Fig. 2 Buffalo population trends for the Serengeti National Park. Data from Sinclair et al. (2007) Buffalo population trends by region Figure 3a, b presents the distribution of AICAR buffalo herds in 1970 before the main hunting period, and in 2003 during the recovery phase. These show that northern isothipendyl and western parts of the protected area have lost herds while the center and east have developed larger herds. Figure 4 shows the proportional changes in buffalo population in each zone (see Fig. 1), relative to 1970, the year when we have complete spatial

distribution of animals prior to the onset of hunting. By 1992 the north had lost 84% (±5% (95%CL)) the far west some 38% (±9%) and the center 29% (±7%) of their numbers. In contrast, the south had lost 23% (±10%) and the far east only 12% (±6%) of the population. Since the drought of 1993, the south has increased above the 1970 level (120% ±3%) and the far east is at 62% (±6%) of those levels. The far west and center, although just beginning to recover by 2008, are still only at 54% (±9%) and 40% (±8%) of their original numbers. The northern population has been unable to recover at all and remains at a mere 2% (±0.3%) of original numbers. In summary, the three regions with western borders had consistently lower recovery throughout the period 1970–2008 than the east and south. Fig. 3 The location of all buffalo herds in the park-wide censuses of (a) 1970, and (b) 2008 showing the loss of herds in the north and far west. Data from Sinclair (1977), S. A. R. Mduma unpublished. Dots represent the size of the buffalo herds at each location.

Arthritis Rheum 58:1687–1695PubMedCrossRef 132 Reginster JY, Saw

Arthritis Rheum 58:1687–1695PubMedCrossRef 132. Reginster JY, Sawicki A, Roces-Varela (2008) Strontium ranelate: 8 years efficacy on vertebral and nonvertebral MLN2238 cell line fractures in post menopausal osteoporotic women. Osteoporos this website Int 19:S131–S132 133. Roux C, Reginster

JY, Fechtenbaum J, Kolta S, Sawicki A, Tulassay Z, Luisetto G, Padrino JM, Doyle D, Prince R, Fardellone P, Sorensen OH, Meunier PJ (2006) Vertebral fracture risk reduction with strontium ranelate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis is independent of baseline risk factors. J Bone Miner Res 21:536–542PubMedCrossRef 134. Seeman E, Vellas B, Benhamou C, Aquino JP, Semler J, Kaufman JM, Hoszowski K, Varela AR, Fiore C, Brixen K, Reginster JY, Boonen S (2006) Strontium ranelate Gamma-secretase inhibitor reduces the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in women eighty years of age and older. J Bone Miner Res 21:1113–1120PubMedCrossRef 135. Seeman E, Devogelaer JP, Lorenc R, Spector T, Brixen K, Balogh A, Stucki G, Reginster JY (2008) Strontium ranelate reduces the risk

of vertebral fractures in patients with osteopenia. J Bone Miner Res 23:433–438PubMedCrossRef 136. Bruyere O, Roux C, Detilleux J, Slosman DO, Spector TD, Fardellone P, Brixen K, Devogelaer JP, Diaz-Curiel M, Albanese C, Kaufman JM, Pors-Nielsen S, Reginster JY (2007) Relationship between bone mineral density changes and fracture risk reduction in patients treated with strontium ranelate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:3076–3081PubMedCrossRef 137. Shea B, Wells G, Cranney A, Zytaruk N, Robinson V, Griffith L, Hamel C, Ortiz Z, Peterson J,

Adachi J, Tugwell P, Guyatt G; Osteoporosis Methodology Group; Osteoporosis Research Advisory Group (2004) Calcium supplementation on bone loss in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Thiamine-diphosphate kinase Rev CD004526 138. European Medicines Agency (EMEA) (2007) Question and answers on the safety of Protelos/Osseor (strontium ranelate) Ref. EMEA/534613/2007. Available via http://​www.​emea.​europa.​eu/​humandocs/​PDFs/​EPAR/​protelos/​Protelos_​Q&​A_​53461307en.​pdf. Accessed 1 Oct 2008 139. Grosso A, Douglas I, Hingorani A, MacAllister R, Smeeth L (2008) Post-marketing assessment of the safety of strontium ranelate; a novel case-only approach to the early detection of adverse drug reactions. Br J Clin Pharmacol 66:689–694PubMed 140. Tas S, Simonart T (2003) Management of drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome): an update. Dermatology 206:353–356PubMedCrossRef 141. Sainz M, del Pozo JG, Arias LH, Carvajal A (2009) Strontium ranelate may cause alopecia. BMJ 338:b1494PubMedCrossRef 142. Suda T, Takahashi N, Udagawa N, Jimi E, Gillespie MT, Martin TJ (1999) Modulation of osteoclast differentiation and function by the new members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor and ligand families. Endocr Rev 20:345–357PubMedCrossRef 143.

RQ: Relative quantity Expression of biofilm-associated genes

RQ: Relative quantity. Expression of biofilm-associated genes VX-770 fnbAB, sasG and spa The agr-dysfunctional isolate 08–008, which showed increased biofilm accumulation in vitro and in vivo, had a significant increase (p=0.02) in fnbA transcripts (RQ fnbA =10.08±0.18) when compared with the isolate 96/05 RQ fnbA =4.91±0.19; Figure 8). However, no significant difference was detected when fnbB expression were analyzed (RQ96/05 =0.11±0.04; RQ08-008 =0.18±0.05; Figure 8). Similarly to fnbA, the expression of sasG

(Figure 8; p=0.03) and spa (Figure 8; p<0.001) was also increased in 08–008 (RQ sasG =1.13±0.11; RQ spa =52.8±0.17) compared with 96/05 isolate (RQ sasG =0.65±0.14; RQ spa =0.8±0.20). Adherence and invasion The naturally agr-dysfunctional isolate 08–008 showed significant increase (p<0.05) in the adherence to human airway cells, reaching

25.27%±0.4% at 3h30min of incubation. In contrast, at the same conditions, the adherence of the agr-functional (isolate 96/05) to airway cells occurred in much less extent (4.94%±0.2%). Similarly, invasion learn more was also higher for the agr-dysfunctional isolate (6.37%±0.3%) when compared with the agr-functional (1.76%±0.2%) at 3h30min incubation (Figure 9, top). Likewise, an increased invasive ability in the stationary phase was observed for the agr-knockout MHC474 (10.6%±0.3%) when compared with the wild type (HC474; 2.8%±0.1%) and complemented construction CMHC474 (2.3%±0.1%; p=0.0033; Figure 9, bottom). Figure 9 Adherence and invasion assays using human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBe14o – ). Top: 96/05 (agr-functional) and 08–008 (agr-dysfunctional). Bottom: Invasion assay was also determined after 3h30 min for the wild-type strain HC474, isogenic agr knockout MHC474 (Δagr::tetM) and the rnaIII-trans-complemented construction CMHC474 (Δagr::tetM, pbla-rnaIII). Discussion The great majority of the USA400-related isolates (50/60; 83.3%) were able to accumulate strong/moderate biofilms on polystyrene surfaces. The isolates remaining produced weak biofilms. The ability to accumulate biofilm increased when the surfaces

were covered with human fibronectin, as also reported by others [19, 29]. In opposition to our results, it was reported that MW2 Phospholipase D1 MRSA had a weak biofilm phenotype [30, 31]. Similarly, a slight biofilm accumulation (OD=0.25-0.3) was observed for another USA400 strain called BAA-1683 [32]. In addition, Selleck Quisinostat recent data from our laboratory (Ramundo MS & Figueiredo AMS, 2012; unpublished observations) showed that another SCCmecIV isolates (ST30 CA-MRSA) accumulated much lower amount of biofilm compared with ST1-SCCmecIV isolates. Previous data from our group [12] have also demonstrated that the ST1 isolates from Rio de Janeiro do not carry lukSF genes and have acquired a number of antimicrobial resistance traits.

One salient feature of Clr binding at the smc02178 promoter DNA w

One salient feature of Clr binding at the smc02178 promoter DNA was instability. In spite of the many binding and electrophoresis conditions tested, we consistently observed a smear instead of a clear-cut band shift upon binding of Clr to its target DNA. One feature that may account for this instability is that the Clr binding site is TGTTN8 AACA, a shorter palindrome as compared to the consensus E. coli CRP(CAP)-binding site TGTGAN6 TCACA. Identification of this binding motif, together with transcriptome analysis experiments, will help identification of new Clr targets in the S. meliloti genome. The reason for

which 2′, 3′cAMP did not promote DNA-binding of Clr is Ruxolitinib cell line unclear. Although Clr bound 2′, 3′cAMP in vitro at high concentration (30 mM), it may not do so at the concentration of 2′, 3′cAMP that we used in EMSA assays (200 μM). Alternatively, 2′, 3′cAMP may not trigger the appropriate conformational change that allows Crp binding to DNA. Further experiments are needed to distinguish between these two possibilities. SpdA encodes a 2′,

3′cNMP phosphodiesterase Class III PDEs are metallophosphoesterases carrying the IPR004843 domain. IPR004843-containing proteins have a wide range of substrates, including cyclic nucleotides, and ensure a variety of biological functions [17]. S. meliloti has 15 uncharacterized IPR004843-containing proteins (see Additional file Selleck SB203580 1) and we have demonstrated that purified SpdA has a PDE activity in vitro (Figure 3). We have further found that SpdA had no or little activity against

3′, 5′cAMP or 3′, 5′cGMP and instead had high activity against 2′, 3′cAMP or 2′, 3′cGMP. Although this cannot be formally excluded it is unlikely that SpdA would have a predominant 3′, 5′cAMP PDE activity in vivo since a SpdA null mutant had lower, and not enhanced, smc02178 expression in vivo (Figure 6C). Substrate specificity varies widely among class III PDEs. CpdA from E. coli and P. aeruginosa, Icc from Haemophilus influenzae are 3′, 5′cNMP PDEs [21, 22, 29] whereas E. coli CpdB Reverse transcriptase was the first described 2′, 3′cNMP-specific PDE [30]. Rv0805 from M. tuberculosis, although it was first reported as a 3′, 5′cNMP PDE [20], has a much stronger activity (150 times fold) against 2′, 3′cNMP than against 3′, 5′cNMP [31]. Myxococcus xanthus PdeA and PdeB instead hydrolyse 2′, 3′cNMP and 3′, 5′cNMP with the same affinity [32]. Hence class III PDEs substrate specificity cannot be predicted from simple primary sequence inspection. It is thus possible that several IPR004843 proteins of S. meliloti display a 2′, 3′cyclic phosphodiesterase activity, thus contributing a functional redundancy. A surprising feature of SpdA was the absence of associated metal ion which is, to our knowledge, unique among IPR004843-containing proteins. Rv0805 activity for example was not inhibited by metal chelators but was boosted by Mn2+ Y-27632 solubility dmso addition [20].

In addition, similar

to FasL and RCAS1, CD70 overexpresse

In addition, similar

to FasL and RCAS1, CD70 overexpressed on RCC promotes lymphocyte apoptosis by binding to its receptor CD27, indicating a proapoptotic role of CD70 in the elimination of TICs as well [82]. All these observations suggest that the direct induction of TIC apoptosis by persistent expression of FasL, RCAS1 JQ-EZ-05 in vitro or perhaps other apoptosis-inducing ligands (e.g. CD70) on carcinoma cells plays a role in the ability of carcinoma cells to escape from the anti-carcinoma immunity. GSK1210151A molecular weight Suppression of TIC activity by molecular and cellular factors Immunoregulatory cytokine/cytokine-like: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and Galectin-1 (Gal-1) TGF-β1 is a multifunctional cytokine involved in immunosuppression. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that a higher level of TGF-β1 expression is significantly

associated with an invasive phenotype of tumors or metastases in patients [83–86]. In vitro a significant amount of TGF-β1 is produced in the poorly differentiated prostate carcinoma cell lines but not in well-differentiated cells [87]. These data imply that TGF-β1 may increase metastasis by a paracrine matter, such as suppression of local immune response or increased angiogenesis. Indeed, in the biopsies of cervical carcinoma tumors, an inverse relationship between TGF-β1 expression in tumor cells and the extent of TICs is demonstrated [88]. PND-1186 This clinical observation is further confirmed by several experimental studies. In a mouse skin explant model, TGF-β1 is produced by progressor types but not regressor squamous cell carcinoma Ribonucleotide reductase lines, and this tumor-derived cytokine inhibits migration of professional APCs, Langerhans cells (LCs), and keeps them in an immature

form [89], or transgenic expression of TGF-β1 enhances growth of regressor squamous carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo just like progressor phenotype, and reduces the number of infiltrating LCs, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells [90]. A further study with invasive colon carcinoma U9A cell line shows that decreasing TGF-β1 expression by antisense reduces the invasive activity and metastasis of tumor cells to the liver [91]. All these studies suggest that carcinoma-derived TGF-β plays an important role in the tumor metastasis, which may be caused by its immune suppressive function. Gal-1 is a member of β-galacosidess binding protein family (galectins), and is a recently identified immunoregulatory cytokine-like molecule in cancer [92]. It has been documented that Gal-1 exhibits immunoregulatory effects by which it controls immune cell trafficking, regulates activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and induces T-cell apoptosis [93].

The reason(s) for this difference is not clear but it is nonethel

The JNJ-26481585 datasheet reason(s) for this difference is not clear but it is nonetheless evident that the pbgPE operon plays an important role in the colonization of both the insect and the nematode. In this study we demonstrated that mutations in galU and galE were affected in their ability to colonize the IJ. These genes are predicted to be involved in the biosynthesis of UDP-glucose

and UDP-galactose, respectively, important precursors this website in the production of polysaccharides. The galU gene is predicted to encode glucose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase and is required for the production of UDP-glucose, an important glucosyl donor in the cell. In Salmonella UDP-glucose is required for the production of UDP-arabinose which is used to synthesise L-aminoarabinose for the modification of lipid A in response to CAMPs [19]. We have shown that the galU mutant does phenocopy the pbgE2 mutation suggesting

that the galU defect may be explained by the associated defects in L-aminoarabinose biosynthesis. However we have also shown that, in contrast to the pbgE2 mutant, the galU mutant is defective in attachment to abiotic surfaces (see Figure 3) suggesting that the galU mutation is pleitropic. Indeed, in E. coli, a mutation in galU would also be expected to prevent production of the LPS-associated O-antigen [20]. In addition to LPS synthesis, UDPglucose also plays a role in protecting E. coli against thermal and osmotic shocks (through Selleckchem Silmitasertib the production of trehalose and membrane-derived oligosaccharides (MDO)) and the negative regulation of σS, the stationary-phase sigma factor [21, 22]. However we have shown that σS is

not required for either virulence selleck chemicals llc or IJ colonization by P. luminescens (R. J. Watson and D. J. Clarke, unpublished data) implying that UDP-glucose is important in colonization through its role in polysaccharide biosynthesis. The galE gene is predicted to encode UDP-glucose-4-epimerase, an enzyme responsible for the interconversion of UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose. P. luminescens does not catabolise galactose (our unpublished data) suggesting that the main role of GalE is in the production of UDP-galactose from UDP-glucose. In E. coli both galE and galU are required for the production of LPS O-antigen [10] and, although the structure of the O-antigen is not known in Photorhabdus, it seems plausible that both UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose will be required for O-antigen biosynthesis. Indeed, given that the galU and galE mutants in P. luminescens are both avirulent to insects, sensitive to CAMPs and defective in colonization of the IJ, it seems likely that these mutants are affected in the same pathway i.e. LPS biosynthesis. Nonetheless it is interesting to note that, in contrast to the galU mutant, the galE mutant is not affected in attachment to an abiotic surface (see Figure 3). However this can be simply explained if, as expected, mutations in galE and galU (i.e.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987,

84:3156–3160 CrossRefPubMed

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987,

84:3156–3160.CrossRefPubMed 28. Seefeldt LC, Hoffman BM, Dean DR: Mechanism of Mo-dependent nitrogenase. Annu Rev Biochem 2009, 78:701–722.CrossRefPubMed 29. Reis PM, Paulo Costa J, Romão CC, Fernandes JA, Calhorda click here MJ, Royo B: Hydrogen activation by high-valent oxo-molybdenum(VI) and -rhenium(VII) and -(V) compounds. Dalton Trans 2008, 13:1727–1733.CrossRefPubMed 30. Bertero MG, Rothery RA, Palak M, Hou C, Lim D, Blasco F, Weiner JH, Strynadka NCJ: Insights into the respiratory Vistusertib ic50 electron transfer pathway from the structure of nitrate reductase A. Nature Struct Biol 2003, 10:681–687.CrossRefPubMed 31. Khangulov SV, Gladyshev VN, Dismukes GC, Stadtman TC: Selenium-containing formate dehydrogenase H from Escherichia coli : a molybdopterin enzyme that catalyzes formate VX-809 in vivo oxidation without oxygen transfer. Biochemistry 1998, 37:3518–3528.CrossRefPubMed 32. Begg YA, Whyte JN, Haddock BA: The identification of mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in formate dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase activities using dye indicator plates. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1977, 2:47–50.CrossRef 33. Miller JH: Experiments in Molecular Genetics. Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Press; 1972. 34. Leinfelder W, Forchhammer K, Zinoni F,

Sawers G, Mandrand-Berthelot M-A, Böck A: Escherichia coli genes whose products are involved in selenium metabolism. J Bacteriol 1988, 170:540–546.PubMed 35. Lester RL, DeMoss JA: Effects of molybdate and selenite on formate and nitrate metabolism in Escherichia coli . J Bacteriol 1971, 105:1006–1014.PubMed 36. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ: Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951, 193:265–275.PubMed 37. Shevchenko A, Tomas H, Havliš J, Olsen JV, Mann M: In-gel digestion

for mass spectrometric characterization of proteins and proteomes. Nature Protocols 2007, 1:2856–60.CrossRef 38. Casadaban MJ: Transposition and fusion of the lac genes to selected promoters in Escherichia coli using bacteriophage lambda and Mu. J Mol Biol 1976, 104:541–555.CrossRefPubMed 39. Kitagawa M, Ara T, Arifuzzaman M, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Inamoto E, et al.: Acetophenone Complete set of ORF clones of Escherichia coli ASKA library (a complete set of E. coli K-12 ORF archive): unique resources for biological research. DNA Res 2005, 12:291–299.CrossRefPubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions BS, MK, MW, CP and KT carried out the biochemical studies. CI performed the mass spectrometric analyses and CI and AS interpreted the data. BS, CP, AT, AS and RGS conceived the study and helped draft the manuscript. RGS wrote the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the manuscript.”
“Background Aspergillus species comprise strains of medical and industrial importance.

Methods The optical properties of gold nanoparticles are solved n

Methods The optical properties of gold nanoparticles are solved numerically in the frequency domain using the Gemcitabine scattered field formulation. Field analysis was performed using a commercially available finite-element-method package (COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3a). The simulation method has been well documented in [21–23]. The extinction cross section is simply defined as the sum of absorption and scattering cross sections of the nanoparticles. More specifically, the dielectric function of gold used in the simulations is extracted by interpolation of

Johnson and Christy’s results [24], and the nanoparticles are placed in a homogeneous medium resembling water, whose RI can be changed from 1.33 to 1.37 for comparison. Results and discussion Multipolar plasmonic modes in gold nanorods Excitations of plasmonic higher order modes such as quadrupole and

sextupole resonances in metallic nanoparticles require a particular incident angle and polarization state. Figure 1a shows an angle-dependent BIIB057 ic50 excitation of a gold nanorod (length 500 nm, diameter 40 nm) in water (n = 1.33) by a TM-polarized plane wave. Figure 1 Extinction characteristics of a gold nanorod in water ( n  = 1.33). (a) The configuration of the numerical modeling. (b) Simulated extinction spectra of the gold nanorod for different incident angles θ; the extinction KU55933 in vitro value in the left panel is normalized to the quadrupole peak for θ = 45°, and in the right panel to the dipole peak for θ = 0° (with a scale 3.36 times larger than the left panel). Curves are plotted with offset for clarity. (c) Angle-dependent peak extinction for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole resonance modes, normalized to the maximum values of each mode. Figure 1b renders the extinction spectra of a gold nanorod at different excitation angles, which show three distinct extinction peaks, namely a dipole resonance at 2,060 nm, a quadrupole resonance at 1,030 nm, and a sextupole resonance at 734 nm, respectively. The mode nature of these three extinction resonances is unambiguously confirmed

respectively by their near-field Vildagliptin distribution (electric field amplitude) and far-field radiation patterns, as shown in Figure 2. The extinction spectra shown in Figure 1b also reveal that each resonance has an optimal excitation angle at which the extinction cross section is a maximum. The normalized extinction intensity for each resonance is plotted as a function of the incident angle as shown in Figure 1c. As expected, the dipole resonance is efficiently excited when the incident polarization is parallel to the nanorod axis. Interestingly, the quadrupole mode responds most strongly to an incident angle at 40°, while the sextupole mode shows double maxima at excitation angles of 0° and 55°. In fact, these optimal angles correspond, respectively, to the maximum near-field amplitude and far-field radiation power for each resonance presented in Figure 2.

In fixed-beam

In fixed-beam treatment rooms the beam is directed with an array of magnets to the nozzle which is fixed in space. Then, the patient is rotated and translated with a robotic system to enable beam incidence from various angles for optimal target coverage. Fixed-beam rooms are about three times smaller than gantry rooms; therefore the size of the volume to be shielded is significantly reduced. Fixed-beam

rooms can be used for many treatment sites [2], although the full applicability for all tumour sites has not yet been investigated. Goiten [3] argued Idasanutlin order that replacement of gantries by one or a few fixed beams in order to reduce the cost of a facility would be likely to result in sub-optimal treatments in a significant proportion of cases, but this depends on the kind of LY2228820 technology adopted for positioning. Smith et al. [4] suggested some project solutions to improve efficiency with lower costs, such as:

a) using treatment setup rooms outside the treatment room, which should improve the patient outcome, especially PXD101 in vivo for paediatric patients who need to spend more time in the treatment setup room, also due to anaesthesia procedures; b) using faster, automated imaging techniques for patient positioning both outside and inside the treatment room; c) using robotics for transferring and positioning patients both outside and inside the treatment room, for moving imaging devices, and for handling treatment appliance. Patient Resveratrol positioning systems In modern X-ray radiotherapy, patients can be positioned in the treatment room by automatic couches with 6 degrees of freedom (i.e. allowing translation and rotations). In isocentric gantry treatment rooms, the combination of gantry and couch movement provides greater flexibility in delivering multiple beams, from different directions, to optimize the dose distribution. Recently, robots have been introduced into particle

therapy applications to be used for holding and positioning imaging systems or to replace traditional patient couches. Accuracy and reproducibility of these devices are very important in their design and development. Moreover, lasers and imaging devices (x-ray tubes and image receptors) need to be included in each treatment and/or setup room. The lasers are used for initial patient set up (to get the patient close to the treatment position) and the imaging systems provide orthogonal (or in some cases three-dimensional) images of the patients to be compared with digitally planning images generated by treatment planning systems. Modern technology could again improve the evaluation of correct patient or beam positioning. This could lead to new positioning and immobilization solutions for initial setup and for patient/organ motion management [5]. The Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute (MPRI) At MPRI (Bloomington, IN, USA) protons are produced in an accelerator and are transported by magnetic beam lines to one or more treatment rooms.

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