HER2 expression in resectable colorectal adenocarcinoma cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in specimens taken from 202 patients. The percentage of cancer cells with membranous or cytoplasmatic reactions and the staining intensity of the reaction in the whole cell were recorded. A membranous Akt inhibitor reaction was present in 27% of cases, and cytoplasmatic reaction in 66% of cases. The total staining intensity in the entire cell was evaluated as moderate (2+) in 32% of cases and strong (3+) staining in 15%. There was no correlation found between either membranous or cytoplasmatic HER2 expression and survival. Furthermore
combined staining intensity did not provide any prognostic information. We conclude that HER2 expression in CRC does not correlate with prognosis.”
“Fontan fenestration closure is a topic of great debate. The body of data regarding the risks and benefits of fenestration closure is limited yet growing. Previous studies have demonstrated that Fontan patients have less exercise capacity than those
with normal cardiovascular Selleck MLN4924 anatomy. Differences also have been noted within various subgroups of Fontan patients such as whether Fontan is fenestrated or not. This study aimed to compare trends in regional oxygen saturations using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in patients with Fontan circulations during ramping exercise to further delineate differences between patients with and without a fenestration. It was hypothesized that Fontan patients with fenestrations have better exercise times, higher
absolute regional oxygen venous saturations, and smaller arteriovenous differences than Fontan patients without fenestrations. For this study, 50 consecutive Fontan patients and Nutlin-3 concentration 51 consecutive patients with normal cardiovascular anatomy were recruited. Placement of NIRS probes was performed to obtain regional oxygen saturations from the brain and the kidney. Readings were obtained at 1-min intervals during rest, exercise, and recovery. A standard Bruce protocol was used with a 5-min recovery period. Absolute regional tissue oxygenation values (rSO(2)) and arterial-venous oxygen saturation differences (AVDO(2)) calculated as arterial oxygen saturation (SPO2)-rSO(2) for normal versus Fontan patients and for fenestrated versus unfenestrated Fontan patients were compared using independent t tests. When normal and Fontan patients were compared, the Fontan patients had a significantly shorter duration of exercise (9.3 vs 13.2 min; p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference in rSO(2) change or AVDO(2) was evident at the time of peak exercise, at 2 min into the recovery, or at 5 min into the recovery. A small oxygen debt also was paid back to the brain in the Fontan patients after exercise, as evidenced by a narrower AVDO(2) than at baseline.