However, understanding the role of gluten in the CD physiopathology has been hindered by the absence of relevant animal models. Here, we generated a mouse model for CD to study the factors controlling its pathogenesis as well as to investigate the influence of oral delivery of probiotics on disease development. Gluten sensitivity GDC-973 was established by feeding three generations of BALB/c mice a gluten-free diet (G-) followed by gluten challenge (G+) for 30 days. The G+ mice developed villous
atrophy, crypt hyperplasia and infiltration of T cells and macrophages in the small intestine. Inflammation was associated with an overexpression of CD71 on the apical side of enterocytes and an increase of plasma cells producing IgA, which colocalised with the LY3009104 manufacturer CD71. Moreover, IgA colocalised with the transglutaminase 2 (TG2), the production of which was increased in the lamina propria of G+ mice. These mice displayed increased production of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), pro-inflammatory cytokines and IL-15, as well as anti-gliadin and anti-TG2 autoantibodies. The commensal
flora-isolated presumptive probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii KK1 strain hydrolysed the 28-kDa alpha-gliadin fraction, and its oral delivery in G+ mice improved enteropathy development in association with decrease of epithelial cell CD71 expression and local cytokine production. In conclusion, the G+ BALB/c mouse represents a new mouse model for human CD based on histopathological features and expression of common biomarkers. The selected probiotic treatment reversing disease development will allow the study of the role of probiotics as a new therapeutic approach of CD. Laboratory Investigation (2012) 92, 625-635;
doi:10.1038/labinvest.2012.13; published online 13 www.selleck.cn/products/pifithrin-alpha.html February 2012″
“Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its receptors are densely localized in brain regions involved in the mediation and modulation of fear, including the amygdala. Several studies showed that central NPY is involved in the modulation of fear and anxiety.
In the present study, we investigated (1) whether intra-amygdala injections of NPY affect the expression of conditioned fear and (2) whether NPY Y1 receptors (Y1R) mediates the effects of these intra-amygdaloid NPY injections.
Intra-amygdala NPY injections robustly decreased the expression of conditioned fear measured by conditioned freezing and fear-potentiated startle. These NPY effects were not mimicked by intra-amygdala injections of the Y1R agonists Y-28 or Y-36, and co-infusion of the Y1R antagonist BIBO 3304 did not block the NPY effects. Furthermore, we tested Y1R-deficient mice in conditioned freezing and found no differences between wild type and mutant littermates. Finally, we injected NPY into the amygdala of Y1R-deficient mice. Y1R deficiency had no effect on the fear-reducing effects of intra-amygdala NPY.