This article describes the development of the core content and pr

This article describes the development of the core content and presents the core content in its entirety.”
“A series of 2-pyridyl-substituted pyrazoles (16a-d, 17, 18, and 28a-e) and imidazoles (22 and 23) has been synthesized and evaluated for their ALK5 inhibitory activity in cell-based luciferase reporter assays. Among them, 3-(3-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-4-(quinolin-6-yl)-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamido)benzamide

ABT-263 cell line (28c) showed 96% and 93% inhibition at 0.1 mu M in luciferase reporter assays using HaCaT cells transiently transfected with p3TP-luc reporter construct and ARE-luc reporter construct, respectively. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Feedback inhibition of adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII) via Ca2+-induced MLN4924 price phosphorylation has long been hypothesized to contribute to response termination and adaptation of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). To directly determine the functional significance of this feedback mechanism for olfaction in vivo, we genetically mutated serine(1076) of ACIII, the only residue responsible for Ca2+-induced phosphorylation and inhibition of ACIII (Wei et al., 1996, 1998), to alanine in mice. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis showed that

the mutation affects neither the cilial localization nor the expression level of ACIII in OSNs. Electroolfactogram analysis showed no differences in the responses between wild-type and mutant mice to single-pulse

odorant stimulations or in several stimulation paradigms for adaptation. These results suggest that phosphorylation of ACIII on serine(1076) plays a far less important role in olfactory response attenuation than previously thought.”
“The role of dopamine D1 receptors in prefrontal cortex function, including working memory, is well acknowledged. However, relatively little is known about their role in other cognitive or emotional functions. We measured both D1 and D2 receptors in the brain using positron emission tomography in healthy subjects, STI571 chemical structure with the aim of elucidating how regional D1 and D2 receptors are differentially involved in cognitive and emotional functions beyond working memory. We found an inverted U-shaped relation between prefrontal D1 receptor availability and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance, indicating that too little or too much D1 receptor stimulation impairs working memory or set shifting. In addition, variability of D1 receptor availability in the amygdala and striatum was related to individual differences in emotional responses and decision-making processes, respectively. These observations suggest that the variability of available D1 receptors might be associated with individual differences in brain functions that require phasic dopamine release.

Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of th

Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of the operator and the resulting combustion; these do not appear to be accurately reproduced in laboratory settings. The single scattering albedo (SSA) of the emissions was very low in both lab and field measurements, averaging about 0.3 for lab tests and around 0.5 for field tests, indicating that the primary particles are climate

warming. Over the course of three summers in Honduras, we measured field emissions from traditional cookstoves, relatively new improved cookstoves, and “broken-in” improved cookstoves. We found that well-designed improved cookstoves can significantly reduce PM and CO emission factors below traditional cookstoves. For improved stoves, the presence of a chimney generally RG7112 resulted in lower emission factors but left the SSA unaffected. Traditional cookstoves had an average PM emission factor of 8.2 g kg(-1) – significantly

larger than previous studies. Particulate emission factors for improved cookstoves without and with chimneys averaged about 6.6 g kg(-1) and 4.5 g kg(-1), respectively. The elemental carbon (EC) fraction of PM varied significantly between individual tests, but averaged about 25% for each of the categories. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Studies have reported that Na,K-ATPase interacts with E-cadherin to stabilize (AJs) and regulate the expression of claudins, the main proteins present in the tight junction (TJ) in epithelial cells containing caveolae. However, the role of this ATPase in the regulation Entinostat mw of the AJ and TJ proteins in Torin 2 manufacturer colorectal cancer cells as well as the molecular events underlying this event in a caveolae-independent system remain undefined. In the present study, we used ouabain, a classic drug known to inhibit Na,K-ATPase, and Caco-2 cells, which are a well-established human colorectal cancer model that does not exhibit caveolae. We demonstrated

that ouabain treatment resulted in a reduction of the beta 1 Na,K-ATPase protein and cell redistribution of the AJ proteins E-cadherin and beta-catenin, as well as the alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase subunit. Furthermore, ouabain increased claudin-3 protein levels, impaired the TJ barrier function and increased cell viability and proliferation during the early stages of treatment. Additionally, the observed ouabain-induced events were dependent on the activation of ERK1/2 signaling; but in contrast to previous studies, this signaling cascade was caveolae-independent. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that alpha 1 and beta 1 Na,K-ATPase downregulation and ERK1/2 activation induced by ouabain are interlinked events that play an important role during cell-cell adhesion loss, which is an important step during the tumor progression of colorectal carcinomas.

Therefore, to assess the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp among bov

Therefore, to assess the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. among bovids in Hungary, a countrywide survey was initiated. In addition, fulminant deaths of four cattle, that showed clinical signs and post mortem lesions resembling acute sarcocystiosis (“Dalmeny disease”), were investigated.

Methods: During the countrywide survey individual IPI-145 concentration heart and oesophagus samples were collected at slaughterhouses from 151 beef cattle and from 15 buffalo, kept in 31 places of Hungary. Analysis for Sarcocystis spp. was carried out with conventional PCRs for the 18S rDNA gene and gel electrophoresis, followed by sequencing of 36 strongly positive samples. Mortality cases were evaluated by histological, molecular, bacteriological and virological analyses of samples from various organs. Results: Among slaughtered cattle the rate of Sarcocystis-infection was 66%. S. cruzi was identified as the most prevalent species in aurochs-like breed, and the zoonotic S. hominis Quizartinib research buy in Hungarian grey cattle. Concerning the sudden deaths of cattle, Sarcocystis-infection could not be demonstrated in organs showing haemorrhages, but S. cruzi cysts were present in the muscles. In one case “S. sinensis” was molecularly identified in the blood (indicating sarcocystaemia). Results of analyses for bacterial/viral pathogens were negative. Conclusions:

S. cruzi appears to be the most prevalent Sarcocystis sp. in cattle in Hungary, followed by the zoonotic S. hominis. However, the rate of infection with both species was shown to differ between cattle breeds. The suspected role of Sarcocystis spp. as causative agents of the fatal cases could not be confirmed.”
“Surface functionalisation is of extreme importance in assay and biosensor development because it ensures the selective capture and detection of the targets of interest.

In the present report, we compare the performance of several gold functionalisation strategies/chemistries, based on SAM self-assembly and PARP inhibition Ab conjugation, for protein and bacteria detection. The first part of the work summarises the optimisation of the various protocols considered. Their efficiency was initially evaluated in terms of reduction of biomolecule non-specific adsorption and specific detection competence impairment, using as a model-target an enzyme-labelled protein. With this purpose, the effect of several parameters, such as thiomolecule length and concentration, self-assembly time and temperature, polymer incorporation, or Ab conjugation strategy was determined. The three best performing strategies consisted of antibody (Ab) conjugation to self-assembled monolayers (SAM) containing mercaptoundecanoic acid alone, or conjugated to either long-chain hydrophilic diamines or CM-dextran.

The significant pathogen resistance of Se(IV) on C elegans might

The significant pathogen resistance of Se(IV) on C. elegans might not be attributed to the effects of Se(IV) on PA14 as Se(IV) showed no effect on bacterial quorum-sensing and virulence factors of PA14. This study showed that Se(IV) enhanced the expression of a gene pivotal for the innate immunity in C. elegans. The study found that the pathogen-resistant phenotypes contributed by Se(IV) was absent from the skn-1 mutant worms. Moreover, Se(IV) influenced the

subcellular distribution of SKN-1/Nrf in C. elegans upon PA14 infection. Furthermore, Se(IV) increased mRNA levels of SKN-1 target genes (gst-4 and gcs-1). Conclusions: This study found evidence of Se(IV) protecting C. elegans against ABT-263 P. aeruginosa PA14 infection MLN4924 supplier by exerting effects on the innate immunity of C. elegans that is likely mediated via regulation of a SKN-1-dependent signaling pathway.”
“Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a genetically heterogeneous hyperinflammatory syndrome, caused by an uncontrolled and ineffective proliferation and activation of T-lymphocytes, NK-cells, and macrophages that infiltrate multiple organs. Herein, a

patient is presented who suffered from hepatitis and atypical brain lesions. Genetic studies revealed a homozygous mutation in the STXP2 gene; and thus, the diagnosis of FHL5 was confirmed.”
“In this study, single crystals of 0.25 mol % Mn-modified lead-free (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 grown by self-flux method are investigated. The crystal shows coexistence of tetragonal and cubic phases in the perovskite structure. EDAX analysis shows a uniform Mn doping for the BNKMT single crystals. The depolarization temperature (T-d) and the temperature

of dielectric constant maximum (T-m) are found to be 175 and 310 degrees C respectively. The complex impedance plot exhibited single impedance semicircle identified over the frequency range of 200 Hz to 2 MHz. The ac conductivity results indicate STI571 cost activation energies in the range of 0.035-0.040 eV at low temperatures and 0.1-0.5 eV at high temperatures. The piezoelectric charge coefficient d33 reaches a maximum of 202 pC/N. Nonswitchable ferroelectric hysteresis showing a strong anomaly along the polarization axis with temperature are observed. Fatigue-free behavior up to 10,000 electrical cycles is observed, making the crystals favorable for high precision sensors, capacitors, and actuator applications.”
“The white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) is an endangered species whose bold antipredator behaviour in comparison to related species may increase its vulnerability to hunting and predation. We used a judgement bias test to investigate whether captive peccaries that had recently experienced a trapping event made more ‘pessimistic’ decisions under ambiguity.

After 6 weeks of 0 9% NaCl supplementation, plasma renin activity

After 6 weeks of 0.9% NaCl supplementation, plasma renin activity, P450aldo expression and serum aldosterone levels were decreased in all groups. In males, IUGR induced an increase in AT(1)R, AT(2)R, and P450aldo levels, without changes in morphological appearance of the zona glomerulosa (ZG). By contrast, in females, IUGR had no effect on the expression of AT(1)R, but increased AT(2)R mRNA while decreasing

protein expression of AT(2)R and P450aldo. In males, salt intake in IUGR rats reduced both AT(1)R mRNA and protein, while for AT(2)R, mRNA levels decreased whereas protein expression increased. In females, salt intake reduced ZG size in IUGR but had no affect on AT(1)R or AT 2 R expression in either group. These results indicate that, in response to IUGR and subsequently GSK923295 purchase to salt intake, P450aldo, AT(1)R, and AT(2)R levels are differentially expressed in males and females. However, despite these adrenal changes, adult IUGR rats display adequate physiological and adrenal responses to high-salt intake, via RAAS inhibition, thus suggesting that extra-adrenal factors likely compensate for ZG alterations induced by IUGR. Journal of Endocrinology (2011) 209,

“Objective: Perception of verticality can be perturbed after cortical stroke. However, a relationship between lesion location and pathologic perception of verticality is still a matter of debate since

previous studies revealed contradictory results. this website Thus, the aim of the current study was to test whether specific cortical lesions were associated with tilts of subjective visual vertical (SVV) and to determine the critical brain areas that cause such tilts in the case of a lesion.\n\nMethods: SVV was systematically studied PPAR inhibitor in 54 patients (22 patients with left-sided and 32 patients with right-sided lesions) with acute unilateral strokes, analyzed by modern voxel-wise lesion-behavior mapping techniques.\n\nResults: The data give evidence for an association between tilt of SVV and the insular cortex (IC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in both hemispheres. Whereas the IC seems to be the prominent structure in the left hemisphere, the IFG is most affected in the right hemisphere. Furthermore, other cortical regions such as the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the rolandic operculum as well as-subcortically-the inferior occipitofrontal fascicle and the superior longitudinal fascicle seem to be involved in the vestibulo-cortical network for the perception of verticality in the roll plane.\n\nConclusion: Damage to these regions might lead to an imbalance within the vestibular network of one hemisphere due to a deficit in multimodal signal processing. Neurology (R) 2012;78:728-735″
“The aim of this review is to summarize the physiological and pharmacological aspects of ghrelin.


optimum conditions for recovery of gamma-PGA from hig


optimum conditions for recovery of gamma-PGA from highly viscous culture broth were also investigated. RESULTS Enhanced gamma-PGA production (41.4 g L-1, 397 cP) was observed under optimized physiological culture parameters (no pH control, 1.5 L min(-1) aeration, and 300 rpm agitation). The cells were completely removed by diluting the viscous culture broth 7.5-, 5.0-, and 2.5-fold at pH 6.0, 4.0, and 2.0, respectively. Maximum recovery of gamma-PGA was observed when the volume ratio of cell-free culture broth to cold ethanol was 1:5 at pH 6.0. gamma-PGA with a molecular weight kDa was successfully excluded in an ultrafiltration system to develop more economical recovery of gamma-PGA from cell-free culture broth, which resulted in efficient gamma-PGA concentration with a molecular weight >100 kDa. CONCLUSION The physiological parameters affecting gamma-PGA production were optimized, Quisinostat and see more the isolation and recovery

of gamma-PGA from viscous culture broth was also evaluated. Cells were removed completely by diluting the culture broth, and precipitation of gamma-PGA using cold ethanol was better than that of other alcohols. Ultrafiltration was found to be an efficient recovery method for concentration of culture broth containing gamma-PGA. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry”
“This study compared ultrasonic chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-coated tip (CVDentus #8.1117-1; Clorovale Diamantes Ind. e Com. Ltda Epp, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil) versus high-speed (#FG700L) and low-speed (#699) carbide burs for apicoectomy, evaluating the time required for resection and analyzing the root-end surfaces by scanning electron microscopy. Thirty extracted human premolars had the canals instrumented and obturated and were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 10), according to the instrument used for root-end resection. The time required for resection of the apical 2 mm of each root was recorded. The resected apical segments were

dried, sputter coated with gold, and examined with a scanning electron microscope at X 350 magnification. GSK2879552 chemical structure A four-point (0-3) scoring system was used to evaluate the apical surface smoothness. The results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test and two-by-two comparisons analyses were performed using the Miller test. The significance level was set at 5%. Root-end resection with the high-speed bur was significantly faster (p < 0.05) compared with the low-speed bur and CVD tip. The carbide burs produced significantly smoother root-end surfaces than the CVD tip (p < 0.05). The low-speed bur produced the smoothest root-end surfaces, whereas the roughest and most irregular root ends (p < 0.05) were obtained with the CVD tip. However, no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) was found between the high- and low-speed burs regarding the surface roughness of the resected root ends (p > 0.05).

Thus, we propose that P angustum uses CAI-1 signalling for adapta

Thus, we propose that P.angustum uses CAI-1 signalling for adaptation to stressful environments.”
“Neurodegenerative tauopathy characterized by hyperphosphorylation CHIR-99021 order tau has been implicated in the pathophysiology

of diabetic central nervous system (CNS) complication. Emerging evidence has suggested that hyperphosphorylation tau is caused by an imbalance of protein kinase and phosphatase activity. This review focuses on the contributions of impaired insulin signaling to diabetes-related tauopathy through disrupting the balance of tau-related protein kinases and phosphatases. In addition, we describe tau pathology as a potential target for central neuronal degeneration in diabetes mellitus.”
“Objectives: Adult population differences in relative and absolute limb size often are explained as adaptations to different climates. Less is known about other aspects of limb bone

form and their population-specific growth patterns.\n\nMethods: We study postnatal ontogenetic development of tibial and femoral form by a multivariate morphometric approach in a cross-sectional sample of South African (N = 97) and European (N = 81) modern humans from 0 to 20 years of age. Because the epiphyses ossify and fuse to the diaphysis in this time period, we separately analyze two sets of variables. Average ontogenetic trajectories are computed to compare the growth patterns of the African and the European groups.\n\nResults: For both the tibia and the femur, AG-881 research buy we could show that Africans and Europeans have a very similar average length and average shape until about 10 years of age. During adolescence Africans have a higher growth rate leading to longer adult bones with narrower epiphyses relative to the diaphysis. Despite substantial individual overlap, the average crural index is

higher in Africans Fosbretabulin purchase than in Europeans, from birth on through adulthood.\n\nConclusions: The prenatal origin of population differences in the crural index indicates a genetic determination of these differences whereas limb length and relative epiphyseal width likely are both genetically and environmentally determined. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 23: 796-804, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Background: Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) at codons 129 and 219 play an important role in the susceptibility to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and might be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders. Several recent reports indicate that polymorphisms outside the coding region of PRNP modulate the expression of prion protein and are associated with sporadic CJD, although other studies failed to show an association. These reports involved the polymorphism PRNP 1368 which is located upstream from PRNP exon 1. In a case-controlled protocol, we assessed the possible association between the PRNP 1368 polymorphism and either Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD).

No analogs were bound to serum TC, whereas the mean (95% referenc

No analogs were bound to serum TC, whereas the mean (95% reference range) for analogs present on HC was 245 (100-380) pmol/L. On HPLC a Substantial amount of the analogs showed elution patterns similar to those of dicyanocobinamide.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Our methods for measurement Of unmodified corrinoids in serum demonstrate that HC carries GKT137831 cobalamin analogs not recognized by TC, and 1 that on HPLC a substantial part of these analogs elute similarly to cobinamide. (C) 2009 American Association for Clinical Chemistry”
“Background: Cisplatin resistance is a serious problem in cancer treatment. To overcome it, alternative approaches

including virotherapy are being pursued. One of the candidates for anticancer virotherapy is the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Even though NDV’s

oncolytic properties in various cancer cells have been widely reported, information regarding its effects on cisplatin resistant cancer cells is still limited. Therefore, we tested the oncolytic efficacy of a strain of NDV, designated as AF2240, in a cisplatin-resistant breast cancer cell line.\n\nMethods: Cisplatin-resistant cell line (MCF7-CR) was developed from the MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line by performing a seven-cyclic exposure to cisplatin. Following NDV infection, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and immunoblotting were used to measure cell viability and viral protein expression, respectively. Production of virus progeny was then assessed by using the plaque assay technique.\n\nResults: Infection of a mass population of the MCF7-CR with NDV resulted in 50% killing in this website the first 12 hours post-infection (hpi), comparable to the parental MCF7. From 12 hpi onwards, the remaining MCF7-CR became less susceptible to NDV killing. This reduced susceptibility led to increased viral protein synthesis and virus progeny production. The reduction was also associated with a prolonged cell survival via stabilization of the survivin protein.\n\nConclusions: Our findings showed for the first time, the involvement of survivin in the reduction of NDV-induced oncolysis in a subpopulation of cisplatin-resistant cells. This information

will be important towards improving the efficacy LY2835219 of NDV as an anticancer agent in drug resistant cancers.”
“Metabolite, insulin and adiponectin concentrations and LDH, AST and ALT activities were measured in plasma of 142 client-owned cats (1-13 years old, 16 breeds) to set up a new criterion of hypertriglyceridemia (hyper-TG) with increased plasma insulin concentrations for early diagnosis of lipid metabolism abnormality including obesity. 25 cats with over 165 mg/di of plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations were decided as hyper-TG with increased plasma insulin concentrations, and prevalence of hyper-TG was 16.7% in young (1-6 years old) and 18.3% in old (>7 years old) cats examined. In the hyper-TG cats, their plasma TG concentrations increased to 6.6-7.

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“A series of st

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A series of structurally simple bibenzyl-diol and stilbene-diol core molecules, structural analogs of the well-known hexestrol and diethylstilbestrol non-steroidal estrogens, were prepared and evaluated as estrogen receptor (ER) subtype-selective ligands. Analysis of their ER alpha and ER beta binding

showed that certain substitution patterns engendered binding affinities that were >100-fold selective for ER beta. When further investigated in cell-based gene transcription assays, some molecules showed similarly high relative transcriptional potency selectivity in favor of ER beta. Interestingly, the most ER beta-selective molecules were those bearing non-polar substituents on one of the internal carbon atoms. These compounds should be useful probes for determining the physiological roles

of ER beta, selleck chemicals llc and they might lead to the development of more selective and thus safer pharmaceuticals. (C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“We prepared a set of about 2000 alpha-helices from a relational database of high-resolution three-dimensional structures of globular proteins, and identified additional main chain i <- 1+3 hydrogen bonds at the ends of the helices (i.e., where the hydrogen bonding potential is not fulfilled by canonical i <- i+4 hydrogen bonds). About one-third of alpha-helices have such additional hydrogen bonds at the N-terminus, and more than half do so at the C-terminus. Although many of these additional hydrogen bonds at the C-terminus are associated selleck with Schellman loops, the majority

check details are not. We compared the dihedral angles at the termini of alpha-helices having or lacking the additional hydrogen bonds. Significant differences were found, especially at the C-terminus, where the dihedral angles at positions C2 and C1 in the absence of additional hydrogen bonds deviate substantially from those occurring within the alpha-helix. Using a novel approach we show how the structure of the C-terminus of the alpha-helix can emerge from that of constituent overlapping alpha-turns and beta-turns, which individually show a variation in dihedral angles at different positions. We have also considered the direction of propagation of the alpha-helix using this approach. If one assumes that helices start as a single alpha-turn and grow by successive addition of further alpha-turns, the paths for growth in the N -> C and C -> N directions differ in a way that suggests that extension in the C -> N direction is favored.”
“”Cardiac memory” refers to abnormal T waves (TW) appearing after transient periods of altered ventricular depolarization. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in the presence of abnormal TW, short periods of tailored ventricular pacing (VP) can be followed by normalization of ventricular repolarization.

The present results suggest that EM genotype may be the risk fact

The present results suggest that EM genotype may be the risk factor of inflammatory bowel disease. Future studies are needed to confirm our assumptions on larger group of patients.”
“Stratifying preoperative risk and guiding perioperative therapy objectively has acquired critical importance, given robust data demonstrating that morbidity following non-cardiac surgery confers substantially increased risk of death, even beyond hospital discharge. The development of useful perioperative biomarkers depends fundamentally on both prospective morbidity data that enable the identification of higher risk patients as well as the translational understanding of

pathophysiological mechanisms underlying postoperative organ dysfunction, the development of which may be specific to the perioperative environment. The emergence of cardiac insufficiency, rather than

cardiac ischaemia, as the dominant factor associated Birinapant order with excess risk of prolonged postoperative morbidity has promoted the application of biomarkers used commonly in cardiovascular medicine. Several novel, organ specific biomarkers offer potential perioperative application. Nevertheless, common tests/biomarkers that are widely available do provide valuable, objective information that is perhaps under-utilised perioperatively. Despite significant challenges, perioperative medicine presents exciting-arguably unique-opportunities for novel biomarker development.”
“Polymorphisms of estrogen receptor click here (ER) genes have been implicated in male infertility, but studies ALK inhibitor clinical trial of this association have produced conflicting results. The present study was conducted to examine whether polymorphisms within the ER alpha and ER beta genes are susceptibility factors for human male idiopathic infertility in Chinese men. We investigated

the association between the ERa gene and PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms and the ER beta gene and RsaI and AluI polymorphisms and idiopathic male infertility in Han Chinese men. A total of 204 men with oligozoospermia (sperm count < 20 x 10(6)/mL) or azoospermia and 252 fertile control men were included in this study. The analysis revealed a strong association between the XbaI genotype distribution and impaired spermatogenesis (P = 0.0018). The frequency of the G allele was significantly lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.003). Furthermore, serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in XbaI AA carriers were significantly higher than those in AG or GG carriers. Our findings further support a possible role of ERa in male infertility. Further studies are needed to replicate our findings, as well as to elucidate more fully the biological mechanisms of the modulation of ER alpha on human spermatogenesis.”
“Study Design: Retrospective review\n\nObjective: To compare the incidence and type of exposure-related complications for anterior lumbar surgery performed with and without an “access” surgeon.