The latter proteins not only link transmembrane TJ/AJ proteins and the actin cytoskeleton but also take part in intracellular signaling (Gonzalez-Mariscal et al., 2003). TJs are composed of the integral transmembranous proteins, occludin, claudins, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), while vascular endothelium cadherin (Ve-cadherin) is the major transmembrane protein of endothelial AJs. Transmembrane proteins of TJs are
connected to the actin cytoskeleton by TJ-anchoring proteins, zonula occludens proteins ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3 (Fig. 1). Infections are quite common, but why do we BAY 57-1293 cell line only see infections of the CNS in rare occasions? One major factor is the special barrier BBB and its building blocks BMECs. BMECs and normal ECs differ from each other in functional and structural terms. Some of these differences are with respect to cytokine and growth-related molecules, stress-related proteins, metabolic enzymes, and signal transduction proteins (Lu et al., 2007). Several TJ proteins, Doxorubicin cell line including occludin, claudin-1, claudin-3, claudin-5, claudin-12, JAM-A, JAM-B, JAM-C, endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule, ZO-1, ZO-2, cingulin, 7H6 antigen, and PAR-3, are expressed differentially in BMECs and peripheral vascular ECs (Nagasawa et al., 2006). For example, claudin-1, claudin-4, claudin-5, claudin-7, and
claudin-8 are less abundant in BMECs than in gut ECs; VCAM, ICAM-1, and E-selectin are induced in lower extent than in HUVEC; and the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and ICAM-1 (approximately 30-fold) is lesser than in pulmonary ECs (Panes et al., Reverse transcriptase 1995; Stevens et al., 2001). Occludin and Ve-cadherin are expressed
much higher in BMECs compared to non-neuronal ECs (Hirase et al., 1997; Stevens et al., 2001). Similarly, researchers observed high abundance of Lutheran membrane glycoprotein (Shusta et al., 2002), CD46 complement regulator, and autoantigen Ro52 (Shusta et al., 2002)as well as relatively low expression of P-selectin and tissue factor pathway inhibitor on BMECs (Bajaj et al., 1999; Solovey et al., 2004). It is interesting to note that BMECs express unique cell surface glycoproteins that are not found on other ECs, such as the cerebral cell adhesion molecule, LK48, BBB-specific anion transporter 1, angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, follistatin, fibroblast growth factor 1 and 5), and CXC chemokines with Glu-Leu–Arg motifs (epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 and growth-regulated oncogene-α) (Grab et al., 2005). BMECs interact dynamically with neighboring cells, astroglia, pericytes, and microglia that contribute to their unique characteristics. Despite the fact that astrocytes envelop more than 99% of the BBB endothelium, they are not directly involved in the physical properties of BBB (Hawkins & Davis, 2005).