They were invited to share their experiences at either a mixed-di

They were invited to share their experiences at either a mixed-discipline focus group, a one-to-one interview or by completing a postal/e questionnaire. During analysis the views from each data set were triangulated.\n\nResults: Selleckchem VX-680 A total of 58 educators shared their experiences. All benefitted

from being part of the planning and teaching teams. They were driven by a strong belief that IPE had the potential to improve patient care and that future healthcare practice would remain team based. Engagement had brought additional benefits to their teaching and career development in particular through forming new relationships with colleagues from other caring professions. They were concerned about educators teaching interprofessional student groups with little prior experience of IPE.\n\nConclusion: The data suggest educators who take on a leading developmental role in designing and delivering an interprofessional curriculum benefit personally and professionally through working relationships with

colleagues in other professions and through teaching wider networks of students. These new insights strengthen personal practice and research and in turn have the potential to influence and improve the quality of faculty teaching.”
“Introduction: Little research has been conducted into the attitudes and knowledge of dietitians-nutritionists (DN) or of experts Citarinostat solubility dmso in human nutrition and dietetics (EHND) regarding functional foods (FFs).\n\nObjectives: To evaluate the knowledge of, interest in and predisposition towards FFs in Spanish DN and EHND, and how these professionals rate the potential benefits and risks associated with consuming FFs.\n\nMethods: 2100 DN and 122 EHND were asked to participate in a self-administered questionnaire. The results were expressed using percentages and the DN responses were compared with those of the EHND by means of chi-squared test. A significant difference was regarded as having been obtained if P < 0.05.\n\nResults: 204

DN and 112 EHND responded. After eliminating 45 surveys due to anomalies, 268 surveys were analyzed (170 from the DN, 8.1% participation; 98 from the EHND, 80.3% participation). No statistically significant differences were HIF inhibitor observed between the responses of the DN and the EHND except in: 1) the view that it was “dangerous” to consume certain FFs >= 4 times a day; and 2) the knowledge of the population regarding in which situations certain FFs should be consumed. Most of the professionals demonstrated good knowledge of FFs, consumed FFs, showed a positive attitude towards FFs and thought that the information provided to the consumer is insufficient.\n\nDiscussion and conclusions: FFs are generally accepted by nutritional professionals.

This novel drug interaction during decidualization could be appli

This novel drug interaction during decidualization could be applied to pathological endometrial cell proliferation processes to improve therapies using steroid hormone receptor targets.”
“Tissue

microarray (TMA) and cell microarray (CMA) are two powerful selleck inhibitor techniques that allow for the immunophenotypical characterization of hundreds of samples simultaneously. In particular, the CMA approach is particularly useful for immunophenotyping new stem cell lines (e.g., cardiac, neural, mesenchymal) using conventional markers, as well as for testing the specificity and the efficacy of newly developed antibodies. We propose the use of a tissue arrayer not only to perform protein expression profiling by immunohistochemistry but also to carry out molecular genetics studies. In fact, starting with several tissues or cell lines, it is possible to obtain the complete signature of each sample, describing the protein, mRNA and microRNA expression, and DNA mutations, or eventually to analyze the epigenetic processes that control protein regulation. Here we show the results obtained using the Galileo CK4500 TMA platform.”
“Aim:\n\nDevelopment

of a ‘miniprimer’ PCR assay for genotyping Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of the Stewart’s bacterial wilt on maize.\n\nMethods and Results:\n\nFour 10-nucleotide (10-nt) ‘miniprimer’ sets were designed and evaluated in the presence of Titanium Taq DNA polymerase. Under optimal SRT2104 datasheet reaction

conditions, the miniprimer pair Uni-BacF-10/Uni-BacR-10 reproducibly generated identical banding patterns among 10 strains of P. stewartii subsp. stewartii, different patterns from strains of P. stewartii subsp. indologenes, other Panteoa species, Clavibacter michiganensis, Pectobacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp. and other bacterial species. The amplicons of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii were cloned and sequenced to identify genes or DNA fragments that are targeted by the miniprimer PCR assay. Of the 14 ‘clone types’ identified, sequences of a 1 center dot 23-kb fragment had a 99 center dot 8% similarity to part of the Pantoea stewartii zeaxanthin diglucoside biosynthetic operon (AY166713). Other dominant cloned fragments included a 411-bp INCB024360 molecular weight amplicon that exhibited 99 center dot 8% similarity to the psaU gene (syn:ysaU; GQ249669), a type III protein-secretion system complex of P. stewartii subsp. stewartii strain DC283, and a 548-bp fragment showed 63% homology to the Asp/Glu racemase encoding gene in Erwinia tasmaniensis strain ET1/99.\n\nConclusion:\n\nThe miniprimer PCR assay reported here is highly discriminatory and reproducible in genotyping Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.\n\nSignificance and Impact of the study:\n\nThis miniprimer PCR assay could be a new reliable and rapid tool for fingerprinting the Stewart’s wilt pathogen of maize.

One of these signals can remodel a light-signaling network that r

One of these signals can remodel a light-signaling network that regulates the expression of nuclear genes

that encode particular antenna proteins of photosystem II. These findings led us to test whether plastid Domatinostat signals might impact other light-regulated processes.\n\nPhotomorphogenesis was monitored in genomes uncoupled 1 (gun1), cryptochrome 1 (cry1), and long hypocotyl 5 (hy5), which have defects in light and plastid signaling, by growing Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under various light conditions and either treating or not treating them with antibiotics that induce chloroplast dysfunction and trigger plastid signaling.\n\nIt was found that plastid signals that depend on GUN1 can affect cotyledon opening and expansion, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and hypocotyl elongation. We also found that plastid signals that depend on CRY1 can regulate cotyledon expansion and development.\n\nOur findings suggest that plastid signals triggered by plastid dysfunction can broadly affect photomorphogenesis and that plastid and light signaling can promote or antagonize each other, depending on the responses studied. BX-795 These data suggest that GUN1 and cry 1 help to integrate chloroplast

function with photomorphogenesis.”
“Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are potentially useful for the treatment of skin diseases, because they stimulate keratinocyte differentiation, exert anti-inflammatory effects and improve barrier function. We examined five PPAR- agonists,

including four thiazolidinediones (ciglitazone, troglitazone, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) and an angiotensin-II receptor blocker (telmisartan), for their ability to upregulate filaggrin and ACY-738 mw loricrin expression at both mRNA and protein levels in cultured normal human keratinocytes (NHKs). Troglitazone, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone and telmisartan significantly increased filaggrin expression at both mRNA and protein levels in calcium-induced differentiated NHKs. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, but not troglitazone nor telmisartan, also significantly increased loricrin expression at both mRNA and protein levels in differentiated NHKs. These effects were not found in undifferentiated NHKs nor differentiated NHKs treated with ciglitazone. This study revealed differential effects of various PPAR- agonists on epidermal differentiation, and the most potent of those are rosiglitazone and pioglitazone.”
“Entamoeba histolytica is the third-leading cause of parasitic mortality globally. E. histolytica infection generally does not cause symptoms, but the parasite has potent pathogenic potential. The origins, benefits, and triggers of amoebic virulence are complex. Amoebic pathogenesis entails depletion of the host mucosal barrier, adherence to the colonic lumen, cytotoxicity, and invasion of the colonic epithelium. Parasite damage results in colitis and, in some cases, disseminated disease.

Methods: in a cross-sectional population-based study, a sampl

\n\nMethods: in a cross-sectional population-based study, a sample from citizens of Tehran was obtained using stratified random cluster sampling. Through a face to face interview, data such as the history of smoking in the past (abstinence from smoking) and at the present time (active smoking), and number of

cigarettes per day and per year were collected. In general, people who smoked more than 100 cigarette-days Selleckchem AC220 were considered smokers. Pack per year was used to evaluate the severity of smoking.\n\nResults: Out of the sampled people, 4565 participated in the study. Of these, 74.4%, who were over 15 years of age, were studied for smoking. The prevalence of smoking in Tehran was 11.9% (95%CI, 10.6 – 13.3). Some 20.6% of the male participants (95%CI, 18.2 – 23.1) and 2.9% of the female participants (95%CI, 2.2 – 3.7) were smokers (P<0.001). The prevalence of smoking significantly increased with age until 54 years of age (OR=1.07; 95%CI, 1.06 – 1.08). People with higher education smoked more. Also, married people smoked significantly more than singles (OR=2.7; 95%CI, 1.85 – 3.95). Smokers used 209 cigarette pack-years on average, which was significantly higher in men and in people with lower education (P<0.001).\n\nConclusion: The results of this study showed lower prevalence of cigarette smoking has relatively decreased compared with previous studies. However,

healthcare officials should consider educational

and healthcare programs to decrease the prevalence of smoking.”
“Plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) spectroscopy, a variant of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrometry, allows JQ-EZ-05 price one to examine changes in conformation of anisotropic structures such as membranes and membrane-associated proteins such as G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The binding and resulting structural changes that accompany interactions of membrane protein with ligands (agonists, antagonists, inverse agonist, etc.), G-proteins, and other effectors and modulators of signaling can be directly examined with this technique. In this chapter we outline the instrumentation used for these studies, the experimental methods that allow determination of the structural changes, and thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that can be obtained PF299804 from these studies.”
“Managed relocation is defined as the movement of species, populations, or genotypes to places outside the areas of their historical distributions to maintain biological diversity or ecosystem functioning with changing climate. It has been claimed that a major extinction event is under way and that climate change is increasing its severity Projections indicating that climate change may drive substantial losses of biodiversity have compelled some scientists to suggest that traditional management strategies are insufficient. The managed relocation of species is a controversial management response to climate change.


“Aim It has been reported that

BMI-1, a gene trans


“Aim It has been reported that

BMI-1, a gene transcription promoter overexpressed in various human cancers, is associated with poor survival. We investigated whether BMI-1 is a marker for cervical cancer by detecting the expression of BMI-1 in cervical cancer.\n\nMethods An immunohistochemistry (IHC) streptavidin-peroxidase technique was used to identify BMI-1 protein expression in 302 cervical cancer specimens. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were employed to measure BMI-1 mRNA and protein level. The correlation between BMI-1 expression and clinicopathological factors was analyzed.\n\nResults Both BMI-1 mRNA and protein expression were evident in cervical carcinoma tissues. An intense positive rate of 55.3% (167/302) was observed by IHC. High BMI-1 expression was correlated with GDC-0994 clinical trial clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular invasion and BEZ235 concentration human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (P < 0.05), but there is insufficient evidence to confirm its value in tumor size, age, estrogen or progesterone receptor (P > 0.05). The BMI-1 protein level was positively correlated with the clinical stages of cervical carcinoma and a high BMI-1 expression was associated with

poor prognosis (P < 0.05).\n\nConclusion The high expression of BMI-1 in cervical cancer is related to tumor progression, lymph node metastasis and HPV infection, suggesting that cervical cancer with excessive BMI-1 expression possesses high metastases potential and that BMI-1 may be a promising biomarker for predicting metastasis in cervical cancer.”
“Living independently in the community is a primary goal for older adults, particularly for the estimated 10% to 20% of long-stay nursing home residents who have low care requirements. According Fer-1 Metabolism inhibitor to the model of person-environment fit, individuals with high levels of everyday competence have the ability to solve problems associated with everyday life. Nursing home residents with high levels of everyday competence and low care needs have poor person-environment fit, placing them at risk for declines in function,

maladaptive behavior, and affective disorders. The goal of this article is to present a framework for the integration of everyday competence with standardized goal-setting and care-planning processes to enable the transition of appropriate nursing home residents back to the community. Barriers to community transitions exist across several Key Domains: rehabilitation, personal assistance and services, caregiver support, finances, housing, and transportation. We propose a research agenda to develop and implement a toolkit based on this framework that nursing home staff can use to overcome barriers to transition by (1) assessing residents’ everyday competence, (2) developing personally meaningful goals that facilitate transition, and (3) conducting structured care planning to support resident goals around returning to the community.

The spatially explicit insights into patterns of cropland change

The spatially explicit insights into patterns of cropland change and in particular into hotspots of change derived from multiple methods provide useful information for decision-makers.”
“We first employ multi-scale time asymmetry (MSA) to analyze typical chaotic signals from Schuster maps and indicate that the MSA method can characterize the distinct time asymmetry of chaotic time series. Then we propose a modified MSA method, i.e., multi-scale weighted time asymmetry, and a novel time asymmetry index to investigate fractal Brownian motion signals and demonstrate its effects on discriminating between fractal signals with different Hurst exponents. Considering that the dynamic behavior of slug flow exhibits

chaotic features, we apply the MSA method to analyze experimental signals from a gas-liquid VX-770 research buy two-phase flow and find that slug flow presents a unique time asymmetric structure. In addition, we further explore the mechanism selleck kinase inhibitor leading to the formation of time asymmetry in terms of adaptive optimal kernel time-frequency representation. The results suggest that the MSA method can be a useful tool for detecting the complex flow structure underlying a gas-liquid two-phase flow.”
“The association of

arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) with the roots of Lindenbergia philippensis (Cham.) Benth., sampled from a Zn-contaminated settling pond at a zinc smelter, significantly enhanced Zn accumulation (72,540 +/- A 5,092 mg kg(-1) dry weight) in rhizosphere sediment amended with 1,000 mg L-1 of Zn sulfate solution compared to fungicide-treatments that suppressed AMF colonization. This can be explained by a significant proportion of Zn being found in rectangular crystals that were associated with the root mucilaginous sheath. Despite this, all treatments maintained www.selleckchem.com/products/ly3039478.html the same Zn coordination geometry in both Zn oxidation state and the coordinated neighbouring atoms. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed a Zn(II) oxidation state as a

core atom and associated with six oxygen atoms symmetrically arranged in an octahedral coordination and coordinated with sulfur. The results may indicate a role for AMF in enhancing Zn immobilization in the rhizosphere of indigenous plants that successfully colonize Zn mining and smelting disposal sites.”
“Motivation: DOOSS (Data Overlaid On Secondary Structures) is a tool for visualizing annotated secondary structures of large single-stranded nucleotide sequences (such as full-length virus genomes). The purpose of this tool is to assist investigators in evaluating the biological relevance of secondary structures within particular sequences.”
“BACKGROUND: The AEBP1 (adipocyte enhancer binding protein) gene has two isoforms: AEBP1, the shorter of the two isoforms, and Aclp (aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein). Aclp-/- mice demonstrate a ventral wall defect that is similar to gastroschisis in humans.

There were signs of

malabsorption Investigations confirm

There were signs of

malabsorption. Investigations confirmed the presence of auto-antibodies found in celiac disease, and a duodenal biopsy confirmed the same. Hypoandrogenism was postulated to be due to hypergonadotropic hypogonadism which selleck chemicals llc has been mentioned in a few patients of celiac disease. However, the pattern seen in our patient was of a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. This is probably secondary to an autoimmune hypophysitis seen in some patients in the absence of other clinical manifestations. Autoantibody testing should be a diagnostic necessity in any adult with a sporadic cerebellar ataxia.”
“The frequency and HLA-A allelic associations of a HERVK9 DNA structural polymorphism located in close proximity to the highly polymorphic HLA-A gene within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region were determined in Japanese, African Americans, and Australian Caucasians to better understand its human population evolutionary history. The HERVK9 insertion or

deletion was detected as a 3′ LTR or a solo LTR, respectively, by separate PCR assays. The average insertion frequency of the HERVK9.HG was significantly different (P < 1.083e(-6)) between the Japanese (0.59) and the African Americans (0.34) or Australian Caucasians (0.37). LD analysis predicted a highly significant (P<1.0e(-5)) linkage between the HLA-A check details and HERVK9alleles, probably as a result of hitchhiking (linkage). Evolutionary time estimes of the solo, 5′ and 3′ LTR nucleotide sequence divergences suggest that the HERVK9 was inserted 17.3 MYA with the first structural

deletion occurring 15.1 MYA. The LTR/HLA-A haplotypes appear to have been formed mostly during the past 3.9 MY. The HERVK9 insertion and deletion, detected by a simple and economical VX-661 mw PCR method, is an informative genetic and evolutionary marker for the study of HLA-A haplotype variations, human migration, the origins of contemporary populations, and the possibility of disease associations.”
“The most common primary end-point of the trial on treatment of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is the degree of impairment. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Standards have been widely used to assess motor function and pin-prick and light-touch sensory function. In addition, pain assessment is another clinically relevant aspect of the impairment in individuals with SCI. Given this, we sought to systematically review the studies that focused on the psychometric properties of ASIA Standards and all previously used outcome measures of pain in the SCI population in the acute care setting. For the primary literature search strategy, the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were sought out. Subsequently, a secondary search strategy was carried out using the articles listed in the references of meta-analysis, systematic, and non-systematic review articles.

The results of bioassay-guided identification indicate that mangi

The results of bioassay-guided identification indicate that mangiferin, salacinol, kotalanol and kotalagenin 16-acetate are at least in part responsible for these multi-target regulatory activities of Salacia roots. The evidence suggests that this unique traditional medicine fulfills a multiple-target strategy in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and obesity. Although toxicological studies have suggested minimal adverse effects of the herbal medicine in rodents, a clinical trial is crucial to further confirm the safety of PCI 32765 Salacia roots. In addition, further mechanistic studies are necessary

in order to allow a better understanding of how use of Salacia root may interact with other therapeutic interventions.

(c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To determine whether magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is influenced by genetic and cellular features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) aggressiveness.\n\nMaterials and Methods: In this HIPAA-compliant institutional review board approved study, multiple enhancing and peritumoral non-enhancing stereotactic neurosurgical biopsy samples from treatment-naive GBMs were collected prospectively, with guidance from cerebral blood volume (CBV) MR DMH1 mouse imaging measurements. By using monoclonal antibodies, tissue specimens were examined for microvascular expression, hypoxia, tumor and overall cellular density, and histopathologic features of GBM aggressiveness. Genetic expression MLN4924 ic50 patterns were investigated with RNA microarrays. Imaging and histopathologic variables were compared with the Welch

t test and Pearson correlations. Microarray analysis was performed by using false discovery rate (FDR) statistics.\n\nResults: Tumor biopsy of 13 adult patients yielded 16 enhancing and 14 peritumoral nonenhancing specimens. Enhancing regions had elevated relative CBV and reduced relative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements compared with peritumoral nonenhancing biopsy regions (P < .01). A positive correlation was found between relative CBV and all histopathologic features of aggressiveness (P < .04). An inverse correlation was found between relative ADC and all histopathologic features of aggressiveness (P < .05). RNA expression patterns between tumor regions were found to be significantly different (FDR < 0.05), with hierarchical clustering by biopsy region only.\n\nConclusion: These findings suggest MR imaging is significantly influenced by GBM genetic and cellular biologic features of aggressiveness and imply physiologic MR imaging may be useful in pinpointing regions of highest malignancy within heterogeneous tissues, thus facilitating histologic grading of primary glial brain tumors. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“In recent years a number of public health, prevention and disease management strategies have emerged that depend on changing health-related behaviours.


“(Cancer Sci 2010; 101: 2499-2500) “
“Objectives: To


“(Cancer Sci 2010; 101: 2499-2500).”
“Objectives: To assess glycerol as reference material for low-resolution time-domain H-1 NMR analysis of fecal fat.\n\nDesign and methods: NMR analysis of fecal fat in stool samples with added glycerol was used to assess linearity, recovery, and relationship with NMR lipid signal.\n\nResults: The study revealed for added glycerol excellent linearity

(r = 0.9998), recovery (101-104%), and linear relationship with simulated fecal fat content.\n\nConclusions: Glycerol is an effective reference material for NMR fecal fat SCH727965 in vitro analysis. (C) 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: This study sought to document self-reported binge eating in a large sample of severely obese children and to examine the impact of binge eating on changes in percent overweight among children randomized to family-based behavioral treatment (intervention) versus control (usual care).\n\nParticipants and methods: As part of a larger randomized controlled trial, 192 children aged 8-12 years (M = 10.2, s.d. = 1.2) with a mean body mass index (BMI) percentile of 99.2 GW3965 Others inhibitor (s.d. = 0.7) completed

assessments at baseline and 6-, 12-, and 18 months post-randomization. A parent or guardian also participated. Child psychological symptoms, including binge eating, were measured before randomization using self-report questionnaires. Child height and weight were measured at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18 months. The primary study outcome was percent overweight (that is, percent over median BMI for age and sex).\n\nResults: Twenty-two children (11.5%) endorsed binge eating at Z-IETD-FMK research buy baseline (Binge Eating Group). Children in the Binge Eating Group were younger and had more depressive, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms, and lower self-esteem than children in the rest of the sample

(No Binge Eating Group). There also were differences between the Binge Eating and No Binge Eating groups with respect to the short-term effects of treatment group assignment on change in percent overweight during the study. Specifically, improvements in percent overweight in the intervention condition relative to usual care were documented in the No Binge Eating Group only. Among children in the Binge Eating Group, those assigned to intervention showed a 2.6% increase in percent overweight, on average, at the completion of acute treatment as compared to an 8.5% decrease among children without binge eating. However, these effects were not maintained during follow-up.\n\nConclusion: Results of this study suggest the importance of considering binge eating in the development of weight management programs for severely obese youth. International Journal of Obesity (2010) 34, 1143-1148; doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.

The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophyte

The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and T rubrum were moderately inhibited by the different extracts (MIC values of 125-250 mu g/mL). Demethylbellidifolin (4), bellidifolin

(5), and isobellidifolin (6) showed an antifungal effect (MIC values of 50 mu g/mL), while swerchirin (3) was less active with a MIC value of 100 AZD5153 mu g/mL. In addition, oleanolic acid (1) and ursolic acid (2) were also isolated. These findings demonstrate that Gentianella nuthicaulis collected in the mountains of the Province of San Juan, Argentina, is an important source of compounds with antifungal and antioxidant activities.”
“Assimilating hydrophilic hollow polymer spheres (HPS) into Nafion matrix by a loading of

0.5 wt % led to a restructured hydrophilic channel, composed of the pendant sulfonic acid groups (-SO3H) and the imbedded hydrophilic hollow spheres. The tiny hydrophilic hollow chamber was critical to retaining moisture and facilitating proton transfer in the composite membranes. To obtain such a tiny cavity structure, the synthesis Stem Cell Compound Library high throughput included selective generation of a hydrophilic polymer shell on silica microsphere template and the subsequent removal of the template by etching. The hydrophilic HPS (100-200 nm) possessed two different spherical shells, the styrenic network with pendant sulfonic acid groups and with methacrylic acid groups, respectively. By behaving as microreservoirs of water, the hydrophilic HPS promoted the Grotthus mechanism and, hence, enhanced proton transport efficiency through the inter-sphere path. In addition, the HPS with the -SO3H borne shell played a more effective role than those with the -CO2H BLZ945 borne shell in augmenting proton transport, in particular under low humidity

or at medium temperatures. Single H-2-PEMFC test at 70 degrees C using dry H-2/O-2 further verified the impactful role of hydrophilic HPS in sustaining higher proton flux as compared to pristine Nafion membrane.”
“Water samples collected from the Northern region of India were used for isolation of anoxygenic photosynthetic (purple non-sulfur) bacterial isolate. The isolate was grown in modified Sistrom’s media at pH 7.0 and characterized as new strain of Rhodobacter sphaeroides NMBL-01 by 16S rDNA sequencing analysis and used for current study. Effect of pH on growth kinetics of the bacteria showed maximum growth rate at pH 8.0 using malic acid as carbon source. The effect of C/N ratio (molar ratio of carbon to nitrogen) at 1.5, 5, 10, 13, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 and 80 using malate as carbon and glutamate/ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source on hydrogen production was investigated. The maximum hydrogen potential and hydrogen production rate were 2000 +/- 45 cm(3) m(-3) and 11.8 cm(3) m (3)h (1), respectively, at C/N 13 using glutamate (1.7 mmol m(-3)) as nitrogen source and malate (3 g m(-3)) as carbon source with 66.5% malate conversion efficiency at initial medium pH 8.0.