“We report a 51-year-old female patient with adult-onset t

“We report a 51-year-old female patient with adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) who had a history of pancreatoduodenectomy for duodenal somatostatinoma with metastases to regional lymph nodes at age 49 Gemcitabine price years, paying special attention

to indications for liver transplantation. At age 50 years, she developed hepatic encephalopathy with elevation of plasma ammonia and citrulline levels. A diagnosis of CTLN2 was made by DNA analysis of the SLC25A13 gene and treatment with conservative therapies was begun, including a low-carbohydrate diet and supplementation with arginine and sodium pyruvate. However, despite these treatments, frequent attacks of encephalopathy occurred with markedly elevated plasma ammonia levels.

While we were apprehensive regarding the risk of recurrence of somatostatinoma due to immunosuppressive therapy after liver transplantation, the patient was in a critical condition with CTLN2 and it was decided to perform living-donor liver transplantation using a graft obtained from her son. Her MG-132 manufacturer postoperative clinical course was uneventful and she has had an active life without recurrence of somatostatinoma for 2 years. This is the first case of CTLN2 with somatostatinoma. Acetophenone As the condition of CTLN2 patients with rapidly progressive courses is often intractable by conservative therapies alone, liver transplantation should be considered even after surgery for malignant tumors in cases with neither metastasis nor recurrence. “
“See Articles on Pages 1201 and 1214. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate immune response and are essential in the host’s first-line defense against viral infections. A major hallmark of NK cells

is their ability to kill infected cells without requiring previous immunization and to produce large amounts of antiviral effector cytokines, including interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). NK cells also play an important role in the priming and regulation of adaptive immune responses. For example, NK cells can regulate T-cell responses by lysing virus-infected antigen-presenting cells or by cytolytically eliminating activated CD4 T cells that affect CD8 T-cell function and exhaustion, as has been recently demonstrated in the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus mouse model.1, 2 Accordingly, in that model, NK-cell depletion causes enhanced T-cell immunity that may lead to rapid virus control and prevention of chronic infection.

Its deacetylation by SIRT-1 allows it to stimulate gene expressio

Its deacetylation by SIRT-1 allows it to stimulate gene expression through its interactions

with PPAR-α. Furthermore, SREBP-1c is a target for SIRT-1 and its acetylation state may affect its transcriptional activity. b)  Extrahepatic factors Lipid metabolism in the liver is integrated with a variety of signals, including circulating hormones, cytokines, nutrition, and other factors that impinge on the intrahepatic processes leading to steatosis. While some of these factors are intrahepatic (e.g. cytokines released from Kupffer cells, endothelial cells, or stellate cells), others are dispatched by remote tissues. Of particular Selleckchem Poziotinib relevance are hormones (e.g. insulin), adiponectin and leptin (secreted

from adipose tissue), and stress hormones and satiety factors that act through the hypothalamus PI3K Inhibitor Library ic50 or other brain structures to regulate food intake. Chronic ethanol consumption has a notable impact on the synthesis and secretion of several of these factors, in addition to affecting their capacity to impact lipid metabolic pathways in the liver. Adiponectin, one of the adipokines secreted by adipose tissue to regulate lipid homeostasis, acts on multiple tissues including the liver to sensitize the response to insulin and enhance fatty acid oxidation. In animal experiments, ethanol feeding tends to suppress adiponectin Anacetrapib secretion from adipose tissue. However, the effects of ethanol on adiponectin levels may depend on dietary factors such as the content of saturated and unsaturated fat.[14] Whether circulating adiponectin levels are similarly correlated with liver damage in human alcoholics remains unclear.[15] Insulin plays a dominant role in integrating fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism in the liver with

the energetic needs of other tissues. Nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis that occurs in the metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes is commonly associated with insulin resistance, that is, a decreased capacity to respond to changes in circulating insulin, in multiple tissues including liver and muscle. There is strong evidence that stress responses mediated by free fatty acid accumulation or ER stress result in activation of stress response protein kinases, including protein kinase C and Jun-N-terminal kinase, which affect the intracellular signaling pathways through which insulin exerts its effects. As described earlier, hepatic steatosis represents a severe condition of increased oxidative stress, ER, and metabolic stress. However, the mechanisms by which such stress conditions can lead to a more severe inflammatory condition remain only partly understood.

2 mm) along with a loss of normal five-layer pattern (Fig  1) Th

2 mm) along with a loss of normal five-layer pattern (Fig. 1). The proximal uninvolved esophagus revealed a normal 5-layered wall pattern (Fig. 2). Triamcinolone

acetonide (40 mg/mL diluted 1:1 with saline solution; 0.5 mL at each site) was injected at the proximal margin as well as in the strictured segment. Thereafter, endoscopic dilatation was performed and the patient has since been asymptomatic. Corrosive selleckchem injury of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an important health problem, especially in developing countries. The injury and inflammation of the GIT caused by corrosives can cause hemorrhaging and perforation in an acute setting and strictures in the delayed phase. Corrosive induced GIT strictures are difficult to manage as they require more endoscopic dilatation sessions and are more likely to recur. The factors responsible for this clinical course are unclear but the intense fibrosis and consequent esophageal wall thickening may be responsible for it. EUS could provide more detailed information compared with conventional endoscopy as it images the full thickness of the GIT wall. It has been shown in an acute setting that the involvement of muscularis propria on EUS predicts stricture formation

with an accuracy of 100%. Theoretically, EUS may also be helpful in the management of patients with corrosive strictures but its role needs to be studied. One may predict the response to dilatation by measuring the wall selleck chemical thickness on EUS (Fig. 1)

as well as more precisely injecting intralesional steroids in the thickest GIT wall under EUS guidance. However, this hypothesis needs to be tested in prospective studies. Contributed by “
“A surgeon needs to address Cell Cycle inhibitor four issues on surgical evaluation for a liver transplant candidate. These are: (1) necessity; (2) suitability; (3) strategy; and (4) informed consent. A surgeon’s “eye-ball” test is sometimes more important than consulting many specialists. A creative strategy is key, especially if you practice in extreme organ shortage areas. “
“Sabio G, Cavanagh-Kyros J, Ko HJ, Jung DY, Gray S, Jun JY, et al. Prevention of steatosis by hepatic JNK1. Cell Metab 2009;10:491-498. (Reprinted with permission.) Nonalcoholic steatosis (fatty liver) is a major cause of liver dysfunction that is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The cJun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) signaling pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis and drugs that target JNK1 may be useful for treatment of this disease. Indeed, mice with defects in JNK1 expression in adipose tissue are protected against hepatic steatosis. Here we report that mice with specific ablation of Jnk1 in hepatocytes exhibit glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. JNK1 therefore serves opposing actions in liver and adipose tissue to both promote and prevent hepatic steatosis.

Its safety, tolerability and efficacy in subjects ≥12 years have

Its safety, tolerability and efficacy in subjects ≥12 years have been demonstrated. This study was undertaken to assess Optivate® in children with haemophilia A. Twenty-five children, including one PUP GS-1101 manufacturer (previously untreated patient), aged 1–6 years (mean 4.67 years) were treated with Optivate® for 26 weeks. Inhibitors were assessed every 3 months and

viral status at the study start and end. Prophylaxis was used by five boys and on demand by twenty. The mean number of bleeds in the study was lower compared to the same period pre-study (12.0/child vs. 16.2/child), with fewer bleeds (P < 0.05) in the prophylactic subgroup (8.0/child) compared with the on-demand sub-group (13.4/child). Fourteen major bleeds were reported, all by the on-demand sub-group. Children on prophylaxis were administered a mean of 59.4 infusions; on-demand group 35.1 Selleckchem CHIR99021 infusions. A total of 998 infusions were used with a mean dose of 29.1 IU kg−1, and a mean of 38.6 exposure days (ED). Children <4 years used higher doses, and reported fewer bleeds than older children. Children’s Parents/Guardians rated Optivate® as helpful or very helpful

in controlling 97.5% of bleeds by the prophylactic group, and in 98.5% of the bleeds in the on-demand group. Only 5 of 101 ADRs were treatment-related events (5%), all were mild and non-serious. There were no clinically significant changes in vital signs, viral transmissions or inhibitors. Rebamipide In young children Optivate® was well tolerated, safe and efficacious. “
“Summary.  The efficacy of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) therapy in haemophilia A is challenged by the lack of a reliable monitoring tool for treatment response. This

is further complicated by the significant inter-patient variability associated with this response. Thromboelastography (TEG), a real time global haemostatic test has shown superiority over conventional tests of haemostasis and has proven efficiency in the monitoring of bypass agents such as rFVIIa and FEIBA™. However, this evaluation has been limited to a few case studies or very small patient series. In this study, six severe haemophilia A dogs were treated with a clinically relevant single dose of rFVIIa, and therapy was monitored by thromboelastography predrug and at 15, 30 and 60 min postdrug administration using citrated whole blood samples activated with tissue factor and compared with non-tissue factor-activated samples. Despite the homogeneity of the tested dogs, a clear inter-individual variation was observed in the pre-and post-rFVIIa Thromboelastography analyzes. The improvement of global haemostatic parameters was seen as early as 15 min following drug administration, with a peak for factor VIIa activity in plasma at the same time. There is a significant correlation between plasma FVIIa and TEG parameters 15 min postinjection, and the baseline TEG profile influences the individual postdrug administration outcome.

However the mechanistic role of CD44 in modulating the susceptibi

However the mechanistic role of CD44 in modulating the susceptibility to APAP hepatotoxicity is largely unknown. Aim: Determine the role of CD44 in the development of APAP hepatotoxicity by comparing CD44-deficient(KO) mice to wild-type(WT) Selleck Lapatinib mice. Methods: Normal fed WT and KO mice with C57BL/6J background were i.p. injected 400mg/kg of APAP dissolved in PBS to induce liver injury. Hepatic

cytokine/chemokine and plasma HA levels were measured by qPCR and ELISA respectively. Results: Compared with WT mice, KO mice exhibited markedly enhanced susceptibility to APAP-induced liver injury at 8h and 24h after APAP, evidenced by significantly increased RGFP966 cost levels of serum ALT(805±425 U/L in WT vs. 2632±746 U/L in KO at 24h, p<0.05) and histological changes of centrilobular necrosis in the liver. The exacerbated liver injury in KO mice was associated with increased hepatic mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines (TNFα, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1 β, IFNγ, CXCL-1, CXCL-2, CCL2) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1,

VCAM-1) at both 8hr and 24h, and markedly increased hepatic infiltration of iNKT cells(CD3+CD1d-tetramer+), inflammatory monocytes(CD11b+F4/80+) and neutrophils(CD11b+Ly6Ghi) at 24h. APAP treatment increased hepatic protein levels of CD44 at 24h, 48h and 72h in WT mice. The percentages Fossariinae of apoptotic hepatic iNKT cells in APAP-treated KO mice was much lower than that in APAP-treated WT mice. KO mice displayed much higher plasma HA levels at 8, 24 and 48h after APAP when compared with APAP-treated WT mice (p<0.05). Hepatic CYP2E1 proteins and GSH depletions at 2 and 8h after APAP exhibited no differences between WT and KO mice. Conclusion: The findings suggest that CD44 may play a regulatory role in the development of APAP hepatotoxicity by modulating inflammatory cell activation and infiltration in the liver. Impaired clearance of

HA may also contribute to sustained inflammation and delayed resolution of APAP hepatotoxicity in KO mice. Disclosures: Neil Kaplowitz – Consulting: GlaxoSmithKline, JNJ, Merck, Novartis, Hepregen, Takeda, Otsuka, Pfizer, Geron, Daiichi-Sanyo; Independent Contractor: Acetaminophen Litigation The following people have nothing to disclose: Jo Suda, Luoluo Yang, Zhang-Xu Liu Background: Despite extensive liver injury after severe APAP-in-duced hepatotoxicity and acute liver failure (ALF), DNA synthesis is often noted in residual hepatocytes, but this is inadequate for liver regeneration. However, recent studies established that native hepatocytes may regenerate the liver when cell injury-related processes and events, e.g., oxidative DNA damage, was reversed by cell therapy.

1) Here, co-occurrence of the two salamander species (S  s  terr

1). Here, co-occurrence of the two salamander species (S. s. terrestris and S. a. atra) has been documented across a wide altitudinal range (500 to 1000 m a.s.l.) in an area characterized by mixed forest, or grassland with small streams (Klewen, 1986; Werner et al., in press). We selected 23 and 19 watersheds of low-order streams, respectively, potentially suitable and accessible to both species (Fig. 1). Watersheds had an average surface area of 27 852 m2 (ranging 17 309–43 668 m2) and covered areas of deciduous to mixed forests at elevations of 450–900 m a.s.l. Though S. atra is water independent

with regard to its reproductive mode, Klewen (1986) observed highest species’ densities in the vicinities of streams. Thus,

we chose haphazardly an accessible 100 m section along a small fishless stream within each watershed for salamander surveys (hereafter ‘sampling site’). STAT inhibitor Because of the steep terrain of the watersheds, our surveys covered an area of up to 100 m width on both sides of the stream. We obtained detection/non-detection data for both salamander species at each sampling site by visiting the sites three to four times in a randomly chosen order between 9 May 2010 and 6 July 2010. A single observer conducted visual encounter surveys (Vonesh et al., 2010) of about an hour during daytime to search for salamander larvae in the stream and to search for juvenile and adult salamanders in the terrestrial habitat. Suitable shelter objects on the forest floor were turned Methocarbamol and inspected for salamanders. To analyze which factors affect selleck products the occupancy probabilities of the two salamander species, we measured habitat and climatic predictor variables (Table 1). Variables characterizing the stream and the surrounding terrestrial habitat

of each sampling site were estimated directly in the field. We measured two variables that describe stream features. For the variable ‘pools’, we estimated the area with a low stream current, which provide suitable microhabitats for the aquatic larvae of S. salamandra (Baumgartner, Waringer & Waringer, 1999) as proportion to the total area within the stream section. For three haphazardly chosen 1 m2 sample plots within each stream, we counted and classified the mean amount of hiding possibilities for salamander larvae (i.e. stones or dead wood with a surface of at least 100 cm2; Thiesmeier & Schuhmacher, 1990) by using a rank scale (1 = more than a mean of 25 hiding possibilities; 2 = mean of 15–24.9 hiding possibilities, 3 = mean of 5–14.9 hiding possibilities; 4 = less than a mean 4.9 hiding possibilities). To characterize the terrestrial habitat at each sampling site, we quantified the mean stream bank slope by measuring the distance (m) per metre height at three randomly chosen points at 1.5 m distance to the bank on both sides of a stream (indicating stream accessibility for deposition of salamander larvae; Manenti et al., 2011).

However, factors predicting its development are still controversi

However, factors predicting its development are still controversial. This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of antituberculosis therapy-induced hepatotoxicity and the risk factors related to its development. Methods: The author reviewed retrospectively the medical records of the 2,204 patients who had taken ATT for 2 weeks or longer from January 1, 2005 through June 30, 2010 in Gyeong-Sang National university, South Korea. The patients’ demographic, social, clinical and laboratory

data were collected and analyzed for the relationships between hepatotoxicity and these various parameters. Hepatotoxicity was determined by investigation of liver tests at the time of pretreatment selleck inhibitor and 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90 days of

ATT. Results: Two-hundred two (9.2%) out of 2,204 patients taken ATT developed hepatotoxicity. Mean age of the patients with ATT-induced hepatotoxicity was 52.5 ± 18.7 years and 130 (64.6%) patients were male. The frequency of ATT-induced hepatotoxicity was higher in the patients with abnormal baseline liver function than the ones with normal liver function (88/541, 16.3% vs. 114/1,663, 6.9%, p = 0.000), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected than non-infected (28/150, 18.7% vs. 174/2,054, 8.5%, p = 0.000) BMN 673 clinical trial patients, and the patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than the ones without it (7/17, 41.2% vs. 195/2,187, 8.9%, p = 0.000).

There was no significant relationship between the frequency Urease of ATT-induced hepatotoxicity and gender, old age over 60 years or 35 years, body mass index, alcohol drink, indication of ATT, underlying diseases except HCC, and past history of ATT. Baseline LFT abnormality, underlying HCC and HBV or HCV infections were risk factors for ATT-induced hepatotoxicity on univariate and multivariate analysis. The majority of patients with ATT-induced hepatotoxicity (170/202, 84.2%) were identified within first 30 days of ATT, and hepatotoxicity occurred within first 7 days in 64 patients (31.7%). Conclusion: The frequency of ATT-induced hepatotoxicity was 9.2%, and its risk factors were abnormal baseline liver function, and underlying HBV or HCV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. Closed monitoring should be required for the patients who have these risk factors during first 30 days of ATT, especially first 7 days. Key Word(s): 1. antituberculosis; 2. hepatotoxicity; 3. frequency; 4.

The translation and cognitive debriefing processes resulted in a

The translation and cognitive debriefing processes resulted in a preliminary version that maintained the intent of the original questions. The validation study estimated the mean score for the child-reported CHO-KLAT at 71.9 (SD 10.4), and the adult-reported HAEMO-QoL-A at 79.1 (SD 21.3). The CHO-KLAT correlated 0.64 with the PedsQL and the HAEMO-QoL-A correlated 0.78

with the SF-36 physical component summary score. The French-Canadian version of the CHO-KLAT and HAEMO-QoL-A are valid. These measures are available for use in multi-site haemophilia trials and clinical practices to capture QoL data from French Canadians. “
“Summary.  During childhood growth, bone undergoes modelling involving separate osteoblastic and osteoclastic click here processes. Markers of bone turnover circulate at high concentrations, parallel the childhood growth curve and correlate with height velocity. The aim of this study was to compare serum markers of bone turnover in children with haemophilia and normal bone mineral density (BMD) vs. those with low BMD. In a cross-sectional study, 69 children with haemophilia were evaluated,

45 children with normal spine BMD vs. 24 with low BMD. Lumbar spine BMD was determined using dual X-ray absorptiometry and Z-scores were calculated. Serum samples of markers of bone turnover, osteocalcin EPZ-6438 order (bone formation) and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (bone resorption) were measured using ELISA. The mean BMD (g cm−2) in the normal group was 0.656 ± 0.15 vs. 0.558 ± 0.12 in those with low BMD (P = 0.007), osteocalcin levels in children with normal BMD were 9.29 ± 4.97 vs. 7.06 ± 2.17 ng μL−1 in the low BMD group (P = 0.012). C-telopeptide levels in the normal group were 1.06 ± 1.4 vs. 0.74 ± 0.3 ng mL−1 in the low BMD group (P = 0.169). Our results showed that low osteocalcin levels predominated in the group with low BMD, which indicates a diminished osteoblastic bone formation activity while there were no differences with regard to bone resorption markers. Moreover, osteocalcin levels explain 10% of the variation of lumbar spine triclocarban Z-score. “
“Little is known about the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) burden of haemophilia B. The

aim of this study was to assess HRQoL burden of haemophilia B, the benefit of recombinant factor IX (rFIX) prophylaxis and the HRQoL benefit of achieving a zero annual bleed rate. Subjects receiving rFIX (BAX326) prophylaxis or on-demand completed the SF-36 survey. Baseline SF-36 scores were compared to the general US population scores to understand the HRQoL burden. Changes in SF-36 scores between baseline and follow-up were tested using t-tests. Subgroup analysis was conducted to examine SF-36 change among subjects who switched to BAX326 prophylaxis. SF-36 scores were also compared between those with zero bleeds and those who bled during the study. Compared to the US norms, subjects reported lower average scores in all physical and several mental HRQoL domains.

25, 26, 37 In this study, the significant decrease in AFP express

25, 26, 37 In this study, the significant decrease in AFP expression in both HA hydrogel conditions studied can be interpreted either that the cells remained as hHpSCs, or that they matured to later lineage stages at which AFP is not expressed. The maintenance of NCAM, a marker of

stem cells, but not mature cells, implicates that the former interpretation is correct. This suggests that the matrix chemistry has an influence in maintaining the hHSC phenotype, as cultures supplemented with collagen III and laminin also underwent decreased AFP expression. The rigidity of the HA hydrogels can be adjusted easily and has been shown to be a critical variable in defining ABT-199 the phenotype of the cells.24, 38, 39 For these studies, the formulation of the HA gels used was that shown to be optimal for the stem cell phenotype26 and in which the hydrogel rigidity was at 25 Pa, well below the rigidity

level of 200 Pa needed to induce differentiation via mechanical forces. The interaction of cells within the HA hydrogels was accompanied by gradual breakdown of the gels and with some material loss in the media changes. This biodegradation is extremely beneficial for cells being transplanted, in that the initial microenvironment is replaced with matrix components and soluble factors from the host tissue. This allows the graft to transition to conditions for integration into the host tissue and then differentiation, responses needed to promote regeneration. Phospholipase D1 Gemcitabine Matrix components have long been known to be primary determinants of attachment, survival, differentiation, cytoskeletal organization, and stabilization of requisite cell surface receptors that prime the cells for responses to specific signals. Grafting of cells using injectable biomaterials has been successful for therapies other than liver cell therapies as discussed here. Studies involving in situ engineered tissue, including studies of injectable Matrigel with

embryonic stem cells40 or of skeletal myoblasts in fibrin41 have shown restoration of cardiac function and geometry after cardiac injury. Injectable materials solidify in vivo and retain the geometry of the injured tissue. The matrix chemistry changes with maturational stages, host age, and disease states.13 Therefore, graft biomaterials should mimic the matrix chemistry of the particular lineage stages desired for the graft and be biocompatible for humans. Many of the biomaterials, such as Matrigel, can only be used for experimental but not clinical studies. Others, such as alginate gels, are used for walling off cells in order to protect them from immune reactions.

Similar taxonomic trends were observed for the ρssCu Although th

Similar taxonomic trends were observed for the ρssCu. Although the Cu:C ratios were GSK3 inhibitor not significantly

higher in oceanic strains, there are five independent lines of evidence supporting a more important role of Cu in the physiology of the oceanic phytoplankton. The mixed-effect model indicated a significant Cu effect on the growth rates and ρssCu of the oceanic strains, but not the coastal strains. In addition, lowering the Cu concentration in the media decreased the Cu quotas and ρssCu of the oceanic strains to a greater extent (5.5- and 5.4-fold, respectively) than those of the coastals (3.8- and 4.7-fold, respectively). Iron limitation only had a significant effect on the Cu quotas of the oceanic strains, and this effect was dependent

on Cu level and taxonomic class. Our results highlight a complex physiological interaction between Fe and Cu in marine phytoplankton. “
“Egg and sperm binding and correct recognition is the first stage for successful fertilization. In red algae, spermatial attachment to female trichogynes is mediated by a specific binding between the lectin(s) distributed on the surface of trichogyne and the complementary carbohydrates on the spermatial surface. A female-specific lectin was isolated from Aglaothamnion callophyllidicola by agarose-bound fetuin affinity chromatography. Two proteins, 50 and 14 kDa, eluted from the fetuin column were separated using a native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method and subjected to a Sorafenib manufacturer gamete binding assay. The 50 kDa protein, which blocked spermatial binding to female trichogynes, was used for further analysis. Internal

amino acid sequence of the 50 kDa protein was analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry and degenerated primers were designed based on the information. A full-length cDNA encoding the lectin was obtained using rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The cDNA was 1552 bp in length and coded for a protein of 450 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 50.7 kDa, which agreed well with the protein selleck chemicals llc data. Real-time PCR analysis showed that this protein was up-regulated about 10-fold in female thalli. As the protein was novel and showed no significant homology to any known proteins, it was designated Rhodobindin. “
“The enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is very important in prenylquinone biosynthesis in all photosynthetic organisms. In this study, we present the functional characterization and expression analysis of HPPD from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P. A. Dang. Recombinant HPPD1 enzyme was purified and characterized. Kinetic analysis revealed a Km of 49 μM for p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, similar to other HPPDs.