, 2014) Many studies have also investigated the role of the meso

, 2014). Many studies have also investigated the role of the mesolimbic dopamine system and opioid regulation of rewarding social behaviors such as pair-bonds between mates Everolimus solubility dmso (Aragona, 2009 and Resendez et al., 2012); we describe these and additional research avenues throughout. In addition to considering how social behavior is assessed, we must consider the significance of the behavior to the species

in which it is assessed. Social behavior encompasses skills from social recognition to social memory, as well as many distinct types of interaction, including with peers, potential reproductive partners, competitors, and offspring. Some of these interactions are better studied in some species than others; for example biparental care is only present in a

few rodent species that have been studied in laboratories, namely prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), California mice (Peromyscus californicus), and Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus campbelli). Monogamous pairing with mates is similarly rare among rodents, and is most studied in prairie voles and California mice. Mechanisms supporting group living have been in explored in colonial rodents including naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), tuco-tucos (Ctenomys sociabilis), seasonally social meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), and others ( Anacker and Beery, 2013). The idea that some problems are best studied in particular species is far from new; this principle was promoted in 1929 check details by the late physiologist and Nobel laureate August Krogh ( Krebs, 1975). In contrast to Krogh’s assertion that species should be selected for their suitability for studying particular problems, modern biological research is strongly biased towards rats and mice; Tolmetin in 2009 rats and mice made up approximately 90% of mammalian research

subjects in physiology, up from 18% at the time Krogh’s principle was articulated ( Beery and Zucker, 2011 supplementary material). Lab strains of mice and rats are highly inbred and in many ways quite different from their wild peers. Use of multiple species allows researchers to compare and contrast mechanisms across the phylogenetic tree. While the depth of mechanistic information available for non-model organisms is much less than for rats and mice, the comparative perspective is essential for understanding to what extent mechanisms underlying social behavior are unique to particular species, common across broader groups, or are variations on a theme (Phelps et al., 2010 and Katz and Lillvis, 2014; Hofmann et al., 2014). In this review we focus on rats and mice for which data on stress and social behavior are most abundant, but incorporate findings from other rodent species whenever possible. And although laboratory research in rodents is heavily male-biased (Beery and Zucker, 2011), we review a substantial body of findings on the interrelationship of stress and social behavior in females. All mammals interact with other individuals.

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