28 In conclusion, NA808 mediates potent anti-HCV activities in a variety of genotypes with an apparent high barrier to resistance. Synergistic effects with PEG-IFN, HCV protease, and/or polymerase inhibitors are observed in chimeric mice with humanized liver infected with HCV. These findings suggest that NA808 has potential as a novel host-targeted drug in the treatment of HCV infection. NA808 is considered a promising candidate for DAA combination treatment without the use of IFN or RBV to prevent the development of drug resistance and effectively
inhibit a wide spectrum of HCV genotypes. The authors would like to thank Yoshimi Tobita and Hiroshi Yokomichi for their technical assistance. www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD6244.html “
“Bruix J, Poynard T, Colombo M, et al. Maintenance therapy with peginterferon alfa-2b does not prevent hepatocellular GSK458 carcinoma in cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2011;140:1990–1999. This article has been updated to list all members of the Evaluation of PegIntron in Control of Hepatitis C Cirrhosis (EPIC)3 study group individually, in a supplemental index. “
“See editorial on page 1196. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent chronic functional gastrointestinal
disorder affecting 7%−14% of the North American population.1 IBS is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with altered bowel habits and is subclassified as IBS with constipation (IBS-C), IBS with diarrhea, and alternating/mixed IBS.2 Up to 33% of IBS patients have IBS-C, which Tacrolimus (FK506) places a considerable financial burden on society3 and negatively impacts the quality of life of those affected.4 Abdominal pain is the key clinical feature and the most difficult symptom to treat in patients with IBS.5 Given the limited treatments currently available for patients with IBS-C, additional therapeutic options for abdominal pain relief are urgently needed. Linaclotide, a synthetic, minimally absorbed, 14-amino acid peptide, is a guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C)
agonist related to guanylin and uroguanylin, members of a family of naturally occurring peptide hormones (Supplementary Figure 1).6 These hormones regulate intestinal fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and, thereby, bowel function through GC-C−mediated production of cyclic-guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP).7 Linaclotide acts via the same mechanism as the endogenous hormones, through binding and activating GC-C located on the luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells. This interaction elevates intracellular and extracellular levels of cGMP, inducing fluid secretion and accelerating intestinal transit in animal models.8, 9 and 10 In addition, linaclotide has been shown to elicit anti-hyperalgesic effects in several animal models of visceral pain.11 These pharmacological effects of linaclotide have translated into the clinic.