4–1 5 with a mean value close to 0 9; data not shown) Fallout pa

4–1.5 with a mean value close to 0.9; data not shown). Fallout patterns of 110mAg:137Cs ratio in soils of Fukushima Prefecture provided a way to delineate three distinctive zones (Fig. 3, Table 1; i.e., ‘eastern’, ‘southern’ and ‘western’ zones). A Kruskal–Wallis H-test was conducted and it confirmed that these three zones were characterized by significantly different values of 110mAg:137Cs ratio (P < 0.001; α = 0.05). The differences in fallout patterns between 110mAg and 137Cs were most

likely due to the fact that those radionuclides were released during different explosions affecting reactors containing different fuel assemblages (Schwantes et al., 2012). Furthermore, even though the overall chronology of the reactor explosions could be reconstructed buy VE-821 (e.g., Le Petit et al., 2012), the subsequent radionuclide deposits are still imperfectly understood. To our knowledge, selleck kinase inhibitor studies that modelled radionuclide deposits across Fukushima Prefecture dealt with 131I and/or 137Cs exclusively (e.g., Morino et al., 2013), and never with 110mAg. The single main operational difference between the FDNPP damaged reactors is that mixed-oxide (MOX) containing plutonium fuel that generates 110mAg as a fission product was only used in reactor 3 (Le Petit et al., 2012),

which may explain this different radionuclide deposition pattern. In the coastal study area, the area covered by both ‘western’ and ‘eastern’ zones was unfortunately only large enough in the Nitta River catchment to be subsequently used to track the dispersion of contaminated Bupivacaine sediment based on values of this ratio measured in soils as well as in river sediment (the area covered by the ‘western’ zone

was too small in the Mano River catchment, and no soil sample was collected by MEXT in the ‘western’ part of the Ota River catchment; Fig. 4). Descriptive statistics of 110mAg:137Cs values in the single Nitta catchment confirmed that the spatial variability of this ratio provided significantly different signatures in both ‘western’ and ‘eastern’ areas in this catchment (Table 2). In order to use this ratio to track sediment pathways, both radionuclides should exhibit a similar behaviour in soils and sediment. A wide range of investigations dealt with 137Cs behaviour in soils, but a much lower number of studies addressed the behaviour of 110mAg in soils and sediment. However, according to our literature review, 137Cs and 110mAg are characterized by similar solid/liquid partition coefficient (Kd) values (9.0 × 101 to 4.4 × 103) in both soils and sediment (IAEA, 1994, IPSN, 1994, Garnier-Laplace et al., 1997 and Roussel-Debet and Colle, 2005). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that 110mAg is not mobile in soils (Alloway, 1995) and that it tends to concentrate in the few first centimetres of the soil uppermost surface, as it was reported for 137Cs in Fukushima region (Kato et al., 2012, Handl et al., 2000 and Shang and Leung, 2003).

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