68 However, the effects of this enzyme are not restricted to the vasculature, as the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exists click here within the CNS, with multiple effects on different systems.69 The most extensively investigated polymorphism of ACE is the insertion (I) or deletion (D) of a 287 bp Alu repeat sequence within intron 16 of the gene, and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the D allele is associated with increased levels of circulating ACE.70 There has been considerable interest in the potential associations of this polymorphism with CVD, including myocardial infarction, hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy, but the associations were not consistent for all disorders.
A review of the literature revealed a moderate degree of increased risk Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for myocardial infarction associated with the ACE DD genotype in most populations, especially in the Japanese.71 There was also one study suggesting that the ACE genotypes confer susceptibility to depression, with an over-representation of the DD genotype in Japanese depressed patients,72 a finding which could not be replicated in an European population.73 However, we have observed that patients with the I/I genotype responded more rapidly to antidepressant Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical treatment.73,74 Furthermore we were able to demonstrate the interaction with the HPA axis, as
patients with the DD genotype had higher basal and stimulated Cortisol levels in the combined dexamethasone-CRH suppression test.75 Recently the impact of the ACE DD genotype on myocardial infarction was re-evaluated using the paradigm Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of gene-gene interaction. In patients with or with-out coronary artery disease, the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism was investigated, together with a functional polymorphism in the G-protein β-3 subunit (C825T), which had earlier been associated with hyper-tension and obesity.76
This analysis revealed the highest odds ratio (OR=7.5) in patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical also with the combined homozygous Gβ3 825TT and science ACE DD genotypes, suggesting a significant interaction of the Gp3 825T and the ACE D alleles as possible contributing factors for myocardial infarction.76 Based on our own previous results concerning an association of the Gβ3 825T allele with affective disorders77 and a possible influence of the ID polymorphism of the ACE gene polymorphism on therapeutic outcome in affective disorders,73 we studied the interaction of both genes in 201 patients with unipolar major depression and 161 ethnically matched controls. Interestingly, in depressed patients we also observed a combined action of ACE and GB3 genotypes, as ACE-ID and DD/Gβ3-TT carriers were more than four times more frequent among the patient group compared with controls.