A corollary of this observation is that the STs that have caused

A corollary of this observation is that the STs that have caused outbreaks of human infections

in other parts of the world have the potential to cause outbreaks in China. However, there is hardly any data on human L. monocytogenes infections in China partly due to the lack of clinical listeriosis surveillance. A recent GSK1120212 purchase report of 6 cases of neonatal listeriosis in a Beijing hospital of 13,372 live births in 2008 highlights that the disease may be more common in China [35]. With the country becoming more effluent, food distribution, storage and consumption patterns have also changed. Since the isolates from food sources as shown in this study clearly have the potential to cause disease, there is a need for surveillance of clinical listeriosis and Capmatinib datasheet implementation of prevention strategies to prevent emergence and outbreaks of human L. monocytogenes infections in China. The findings also have implications for other countries where there is no surveillance system for L. monocytogenes . Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grants (Mega Project of Research on The Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis Infectious Diseases 2008ZX10004-001, 2009ZX10004-101 and 2011ZX10004-001 to Changyun Ye) from the Ministry of Science and Technology, People’s Republic of China. We also thank local food surveillance laboratories of 12 provinces/cities CDC in China for providing the L. monocytogenes isolates, and the Institut Pasteur for providing the MLST database

of L. monocytogenes in their Genotyping Edoxaban of Pathogens and Public Health Platform. References 1. Schlech WF 3rd: Foodborne listeriosis. Clin Infect Dis 2000, 31:770–775.PubMedCrossRef 2. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Griffin PM, Tauxe RV: Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 1999, 5:607–625.PubMedCrossRef 3. Schlech WF, Lavigne PM, Bortolussi RA, Allen AC, Haldane EV, Wort AJ, C646 Hightower AW, Johnson SE, King SH, Nicholls ES, et al.: Epidemic listeriosis–evidence for transmission by food. N Engl J Med 1983, 308:203–206.PubMedCrossRef 4. Evans JR, Allen AC, Stinson DA, Bortolussi R, Peddle LJ: Perinatal listeriosis: report of an outbreak. Pediatr Infect Dis 1985, 4:237–241.PubMedCrossRef 5. Fleming DW, Cochi SL, MacDonald KL, Brondum J, Hayes PS, Plikaytis BD, Holmes MB, Audurier A, Broome CV, Reingold AL: Pasteurized milk as a vehicle of infection in an outbreak of listeriosis. N Engl J Med 1985, 312:404–407.PubMedCrossRef 6. CfDCa P: Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections associated with pasteurized milk from a local dairy–Massachusetts, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2008, 57:1097–1100. 7. Linnan MJ, Mascola L, Lou XD, Goulet V, May S, Salminen C, Hird DW, Yonekura ML, Hayes P, Weaver R, et al.: Epidemic listeriosis associated with Mexican-style cheese.

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