After 6 weeks of 0.9% NaCl supplementation, plasma renin activity, P450aldo expression and serum aldosterone levels were decreased in all groups. In males, IUGR induced an increase in AT(1)R, AT(2)R, and P450aldo levels, without changes in morphological appearance of the zona glomerulosa (ZG). By contrast, in females, IUGR had no effect on the expression of AT(1)R, but increased AT(2)R mRNA while decreasing
protein expression of AT(2)R and P450aldo. In males, salt intake in IUGR rats reduced both AT(1)R mRNA and protein, while for AT(2)R, mRNA levels decreased whereas protein expression increased. In females, salt intake reduced ZG size in IUGR but had no affect on AT(1)R or AT 2 R expression in either group. These results indicate that, in response to IUGR and subsequently GSK923295 purchase to salt intake, P450aldo, AT(1)R, and AT(2)R levels are differentially expressed in males and females. However, despite these adrenal changes, adult IUGR rats display adequate physiological and adrenal responses to high-salt intake, via RAAS inhibition, thus suggesting that extra-adrenal factors likely compensate for ZG alterations induced by IUGR. Journal of Endocrinology (2011) 209,
“Objective: Perception of verticality can be perturbed after cortical stroke. However, a relationship between lesion location and pathologic perception of verticality is still a matter of debate since
previous studies revealed contradictory results. this website Thus, the aim of the current study was to test whether specific cortical lesions were associated with tilts of subjective visual vertical (SVV) and to determine the critical brain areas that cause such tilts in the case of a lesion.\n\nMethods: SVV was systematically studied PPAR inhibitor in 54 patients (22 patients with left-sided and 32 patients with right-sided lesions) with acute unilateral strokes, analyzed by modern voxel-wise lesion-behavior mapping techniques.\n\nResults: The data give evidence for an association between tilt of SVV and the insular cortex (IC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in both hemispheres. Whereas the IC seems to be the prominent structure in the left hemisphere, the IFG is most affected in the right hemisphere. Furthermore, other cortical regions such as the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the rolandic operculum as well as-subcortically-the inferior occipitofrontal fascicle and the superior longitudinal fascicle seem to be involved in the vestibulo-cortical network for the perception of verticality in the roll plane.\n\nConclusion: Damage to these regions might lead to an imbalance within the vestibular network of one hemisphere due to a deficit in multimodal signal processing. Neurology (R) 2012;78:728-735″
“The aim of this review is to summarize the physiological and pharmacological aspects of ghrelin.