At the 1s exciton resonance, two peaks are identified in the abso

At the 1s exciton resonance, two peaks are identified in the absorption spectra, which are assigned to splitting of the exciton ground state into the triplet and singlet states. 2DFT spectra acquired for co-linear polarization of the excitation pulses feature an additional peak originating from coherent energy transfer between the singlet and triplet. At cross-linear polarization of the excitation pulses, the 2DFT spectra expose a new peak likely originating from bound biexcitons. The polarization dependent 2DFT spectra are well reproduced by simulations using the optical Bloch equations for a four level system, where many-body effects

are included phenomenologically. Although biexciton effects are thought to be strong in this material, only moderate contributions from bound biexciton

creation can be observed. The biexciton selleck chemicals binding energy of similar to 2 meV was estimated from the separation of the Blasticidin S research buy peaks in the 2DFT spectra. Temperature dependent absorption and 2DFT measurements, combined with “ab initio” theoretical calculations of the phonon spectra, indicate strong interaction with the A(1)’ phonon mode. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal excitation induced dephasing and provide a lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of the excitons in the present GaSe crystal. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“A Summary This is the first reported study to describe local bone mineral density, assess parameters of fracture risk and report history of fractures in adolescents with motor difficulties. Motor difficulties evidenced by poor coordination in adolescence should be considered a new risk factor for below-average bone strength and structure and fracture risk. Introduction Adolescents with motor difficulties are characterised by poor coordination and low levels of physical

activity and fitness. It is possible these deficits translate into below-average bone strength and structure. The objectives HDAC inhibitor of this study were to describe local bone mineral density (BMD), assess parameters of fracture risk (stress-strain index, SSI) and report history of fractures in this group. Methods Thirty-three adolescents (13 females), mean age of 14.3 (SD = 1.5) years, with motor difficulties underwent peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measurements at proximal (66 %) and distal (4 %) sites of the non-dominant radius (R4 and R66) and tibia (T4 and T66). One sample t test was used to compare Z-scores for total BMD, trabecular density, cortical density and stress strain index (SSI) against standardized norms. Results Significant differences were present at R4 total density mean Z-score = -0.85 (SD = 0.7, p smaller than 0.001), R66 cortical density mean Z-score = -0.74 (SD = 1.97, p = 0.038), R66 SSI mean Z-score = -1.00 (SD = 1.08, p smaller than 0.001) and T66 SSI mean Z-score = -0.70 (SD = 1.15, p smaller than 0.001). There was a higher incidence of fractures (26.9 %) compared to the normal population (3-9 %).

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