Figure 5 The relationship AG-120 manufacturer between ppGpp and RpoS KPT-8602 cell line concentration in bacteria. (a) A plot of the RpoS concentration against ppGpp concentration for the numbered ECOR isolates. (b) Multivariate analysis was performed using non-metric multidimensional scaling and Gower similarity measures using the software Past . The lines between points show the minimum spanning tree drawn by the program. Discussion Sigma factors are high in the hierarchy of transcriptional regulators and are influenced by multiple environmental sensing pathways [45, 46]. Molecules like ppGpp contribute to altering
the pattern of transcription through sigma factors  and affect many important bacterial characteristics [20, 47–49]. We address the question of the constancy of σS and ppGpp function across a species, beyond an individual lab strain. The variation in σS levels and their physiological
consequences across E. coli strains has been demonstrated earlier , and led to the idea of a trade-off between stress resistance (in high-RpoS strains) and nutritional capability (better in low-RpoS strains) . This conclusion has been questioned . Based on measurements of RpoS levels in six E. coli isolates these authors found a six-fold difference in RpoS level, with the highest RpoS only 1.49-times the MG1655 level. They noted that the trade-off hypothesis was originally based on only two high-RpoS strains in . The variation of RpoS levels therefore needed a deeper analysis. Here we show that there is a much larger range of variation in σS amongst the ECOR isolates than Ihssen et al. found with fresh-water isolates. GDC-0068 chemical structure Further, we detected here sequence polymorphisms that would not have been observable in the earlier comparative genome hybridisation analysis . Our conclusions are also consistent with results on RpoS variation in other laboratories [30, 39] and recent indications that RpoS levels are highly variable within clinical populations of E. coli
. The variation in σS levels is Rucaparib order not simply a result of differences in rpoS sequence. Variation in ppGpp was also evident in ECOR strains, revealing a possible diversifying influence on RpoS level and function [9, 10]. ppGpp levels in ECOR strains showed dissimilarity particularly in response to carbon starvation. Variation in ppGpp levels was less with amino acid deprivation, consistent with greater variation in spoT than relA function. The conservation in relA function is not surprising, since the main role of RelA and the stringent response is to control the translational machinery of the cell in response to intracellular amino acid availability. This regulation is likely to be a universal need and hence widely conserved. In contrast, the response to extracellular nutrient availability and carbon starvation, mediated through spoT, is subject to fluctuating environmental inputs.