he pre moult stages, coinciding with the formation of new cuticle, which must remain uncalcified prior to moulting, while the mannose bind ing protein is up regulated in the moult and post moult period. The temporally specific, and high levels of, up regulation selleck compound of both of these genes have been pro posed to be involved in the regulation of calcification in the crustacean cuticle. Lectins are also involved in immune function through the lectin comple ment pathway, in which the mannose binding lectin recognises infectious agents and triggers PO activation. PO activity also plays a role in cuticle sclerotiza tion and melanisation. The up regulation of mannose binding protein Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries observed here during periods of cuticle hardening, coupled with its role in the activa tion of the PO cascade, suggest that it also participates in the sclerotization of the crustacean exoskeleton.
Muscle formation Muscle related cDNAs such as actin, myosin and thy mosin, constituted 6% of all the transcripts isolated dur ing the moult cycle related microarray experiments. Differential expression of muscle related transcripts was observed across the moult cycle where a gradual Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries up regulation of actin and myosin transcripts was observed between edcysis and the early pre moult stage. Actin possesses diverse cel lular functions which include the provision of mechani cal support in the cytoskeleton, the mechanism for muscle contraction in muscle cells, and the binding of ATP in the cytosol. Myosins are a large family of motor proteins that facilitate actin based motility, via an interaction with actin and the hydrolysis of ATP.
Muscle mass, particularly in the claws of large decapod crustaceans, undergoes cyclic atrophy during pre moult followed by regeneration during the post moult and intermoult periods. The up regulation of actin and myosin observed from moult through to early pre moult is consistent with the observation that muscle deposition and growth occur mainly Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in the intermoult period. Lipid metabolism Transcripts encoding the lipid metabolism proteins dia zepam binding inhibitor and fatty acid binding protein constituted 2% of all sequenced transcripts. Fatty acid binding protein transcripts were found in Cluster E, where an up regulation is observed in the pre moult stages when compared to the rest of the moult cycle.
The fluctuation of lipid composition in the hypodermal membrane of the exoskeleton has been Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries demonstrated in several crustacean species. Observa tions in C. pagurus show that the hypodermis increases in lipid content just before secretion of the new exoske leton begins in pre Drug_discovery moult. Cuticular lipid levels in C. sapidus have been shown to increase during pre Belinostat supplier moult and peak dramatically post ecdysis before returning to intermoult levels. These cuticular observations reflect the changes detected in the hemo cytes of C. maenas which become loaded with lipid prior to ecdysis. Hemocytes aggregate beneath the hypo dermis and apparently transfer the lipid to the newly