Table 1 Recommended dosing regimens of the most frequently used renally excreted antimicrobials according to renal function Renal function Antibiotic Increased NCT-501 solubility dmso Normal Moderately impaired Severely impaired Piperacillin/tazobatam 16/2 g q24 h CI or 3.375 q6 h EI over 4 hours 4/0.5 g q6 h 3/0.375 g q6 h 2/0.25 g q6 h Imipenem 500 mg q4 h or 250 mg q3 h over 3 hours CI 500 mg q6 h 250 mg q6 h 250 mg q12 h Meropenem 1 g q6 h over 6 hours CI 500 mg q6 h 250 mg q6 h 250 mg q12 h Ertapenem ND 1 g q24 h 1 g q24 h 500 mg q24 h Gentamycin 9
to 10 mg/kg q24 hb 7 mg/kg q24 h 7 mg/kg q36–48 h 7 mg/kg q48–96 h Amikacin 20 mg/kg q24 h 15 mg/kg q24 h 15 mg/kg q36–48 hb 15 mg/kg q48–96 h Ciprofloxacin 600 mg q12 h or 400 mg q8 h 400 mg q12 h 400 mg q12 h 400 mg q24 h Levofloxacin 500 mg q12 h 750 mg q24 h 500 mg q24 h 500 mg q48 h Vancomycin 30 mg/kg q24 see more h CI 500 mg q6 h 500 mg q12 h 500 mg q24–72 h Teicoplanin LD 12 mg/kg q12 h for 3 to 4 doses; MD 6 mg/kg q12 h LD 12 mg/kg q12 h for 3 to 4 doses; MD 4 to 6 mg/kg q12 h LD 12 mg/kg q12 h for 3 to 4 doses; MD 2 to 4 mg/kg q12 h LD 12 mg/kg q12 h for 3 to 4 doses; MD 2 to 4 mg/kg q24 h Tigecycline LD 100 mg; MD 50 mg
q12 h LD 100 mg; MD 50 mg q12 h LD 100 mg; MD tuclazepam 50 mg q12 h LD 100 mg; MD 50 mg
q12 h Regarding the administration of antibiotics, treatment efficacy against a certain microorganism can involve the specific drug concentration and/or the time when the drug is introduced to the binding site . Concentration-dependent antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides and quinolones, are more effective at higher concentrations. They therefore feature a concentration-dependent post-antibiotic effect, and bactericidal action continues for a period of time after the antibiotic level falls below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) . Concentration-dependent agents administered in high dosage, short-course, once-a-day treatment regimens may promote more rapid and efficient bactericidal action and prevent the development of resistant strains. There is good evidence for extended duration of aminoglycoside dosing in critically ill patients. In terms of toxicity, aminoglycosides nephrotoxicity is caused by a direct effect on the renal cortex and the uptake into the renal cortex can be saturated. Thus a dosing strategy of extended duration reduces the renal cortex exposure to aminoglycosides and reduces the risk of nephrotoxicity . Time-dependent antibiotics, such as β-lactams and glycopeptides, demonstrate optimal bactericidal activity when drug concentrations are maintained above the MIC. Unlike concentration-dependent agents, they have a negligible post-antibiotic effect.