It could be argued that the longer exposure explains the higher t

It could be argued that the longer exposure explains the higher tissue uptake of cisplatin. However, group 4 had a 2 hours IPC and did not achieved significantly better concentrations than group 1

(1 hour IPC); the difference was close to significance (p = 0.06), but it can not explain a 3-fold increase in concentration. The effect of time probably exists, but is small. This is consistent with the results of a previous pharmacokinetic study which showed that most of the uptake happens at the beginning of IPC, when the gradient of concentrations is higher: a twice 1-hour bath (as done in the present study) with a newly prepared identical solution was more effective than MAPK inhibitor a 2-hour bath [24]. Similar results have been obtained in HIPEC with oxaliplatin [11]. Adrenaline also increased the drug content in the muscle of the abdominal wall. We observed a ratio of 5 to 17 in drug uptake between an abdominal muscle and a distant thoracic muscle. This reflects the pharmacological advantage of IPC to obtain high local drug

concentrations in the abdominal wall, peritoneum and muscle lining, all of which are possibly infiltrated by malignant cells in peritoneal carcinomatosis. In previous studies we used a higher concentration of adrenaline (5 or 10 mg/L) [18, 19]. In the buy Nirogacestat present study it was reduced according to a recent phase I clinical trial, which established the safety of 2 mg/l of adrenaline,

whereas 3 mg/l induced cardiovascular collateral effects (tachycardia, arterial hypertension or electric signs of cardiac ischemia) [21]. Despite their longer exposure, rats treated with adrenaline showed lower extraperitoneal concentrations of platinum than both, the control and the HIPEC groups. This is probably explained by the vasoconstrictor effect of adrenaline Etofibrate which prevented the systemic diffusion, and thus, the potential toxicity of cisplatin. At the opposite, HIPEC has been shown to increase systemic absorption of chemotherapy drugs due to heat-induced vasodilatation [11]. Our results confirmed the well-known enhancing effect of hyperthermia on the platinum uptake, as well in vitro as in vivo [25–28]. In vitro, the thermal enhanced ratio (TER) after 1 hour exposure at 42°C compared to 37°C ranged from 1.5 to 2.1, depending on the cell line. The TER was lower than that found in other studies (3.4 for 1 hour at 43°C in a different colon Vactosertib solubility dmso cancer cell line in rats; 2.2 or 3.9 for hamster kidney cells and Chinese hamster fibroblasts, respectively) [26, 27]. The reasons for these discrepancies (technical variations or true differences in membrane permeability in different cell lines) are unknown. The increased accumulation due to extending exposure to 2 hours (1.6 to 2.5) was of the same order as the TER recorded after 1 hour.

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