J Med Microbiol 2012,61(Pt 9):1254–1261.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Authors’ contributions CF and OP carried out the molecular studies, participated in the MST analysis and drafted the manuscript. HR participated in the molecular studies. CB conceived the design of the study, participated in its design and coordination and drafted the manuscript. All of the authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Shewanella oneidensis https://www.selleckchem.com/products/pifithrin-alpha.html MR-1 is a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium  and can use
under anoxic conditions insoluble Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxide minerals as electron acceptors [2, 3]. In the laboratory, S. oneidensis MR-1 forms biofilms under hydrodynamic flow conditions on a borosilicate glass surface, where biofilm formation is mediated by a set of complementary molecular machineries, comprised of the type IV MSHA pilus and a putative exopolysaccharide biosynthesis (EPS) gene cluster (selleck chemicals mxdABCD)[4, 5]. The first gene of this cluster is mxdA, GDC-0449 in vitro which is predicted to encode for a gene with unknown function; however, MxdA was recently shown to control
indirectly cellular levels of c-di-GMP in S. oneidensis MR-1 . MxdB has homology to a membrane-bound type II glycosyl transferase and was thought to be involved in the transport of extracellular material involved in forming the matrix of S. oneidensis MR-1 biofilms. This hypothesis was supported by genetic analysis revealing that ∆mxdB mutants were unable to transition from a cell monolayer to a three dimensional biofilm structure .
MxdC shares homology with an efflux pump and mxdD was annotated as a conserved hypothetical protein with no known homology. ∆mshA∆mxdB Y-27632 2HCl double mutants were entirely deficient in initial attachment and biofilm formation . Expression of adhesion factors such as EPS are regulated in Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in response to environmental factors. The vps gene cluster in V. cholerae, for example, was shown to be controlled in a cell- density dependent manner [7–10] involving several two-component signaling systems (TCS). The global regulator ArcA is part of the ArcS/ArcA two-component regulatory system in S. oneidensis MR-1 [11–14]. Recently, it was shown that phoshorylation of ArcA by ArcS requires the presence of HptA, a separate phosphotransfer domain . HptA of S. oneidensis MR-1 shares homology with the N-terminal domain of ArcB, the sensor histidine kinase of the E. coli ArcB/ArcA system, but does not share significant homology with ArcS from S. oneidensis MR-1. ArcS/HptA have been shown to functionally complement an E. coli ΔArcB mutant . In E.