Lopinavir/ritonavir was discontinued when the plasma viral load d

Lopinavir/ritonavir was discontinued when the plasma viral load dropped below 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. After January 2008, zidovudine/lamuvidine

was replaced with tenofovir/emtricitabine (245/200 mg qd), and lopinavir/ritonavir tablets (600/150 mg bid) http://www.selleckchem.com/products/17-AAG(Geldanamycin).html replaced the capsules. Patients needed to have sufficient fluency in Dutch or English to complete a self-administered HRQL questionnaire. Recruitment of participants and the study design have been described previously [1, 11]. The study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of each participating site and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Patients received a self-report questionnaire measuring HRQL when attending the out-patient clinic for the study visits at weeks

0, 8, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: the Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey for HIV (MOS-HIV) and a symptom checklist. The MOS-HIV is a widely used questionnaire comprising 10 subscales [12]. Physical health (PHS) and mental health summary (MHS) scores can be calculated on the basis of these subscale scores [13]. Higher scores indicate a better HRQL. The symptom checklist consisted of 14 items referring to symptoms related to PHI or to side effects of cART, i.e. difficulty with sleeping, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal or stomach pain, fever, NU7441 manufacturer flu-like symptoms such as myalgia or chills, tingling of hands or feet, numb feeling in fingers or toes, dizziness,

itchiness and skin changes. These items were derived from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Core 30 and an HIV/AIDS-specific questionnaire [9]. The questions related to the experience of symptoms during the past week. Symptoms were scored on a four-point scale with the response categories ‘not at all’, ‘a little’, ‘quite a bit’, and ‘very much’. The four-point scale scores were linearly transformed to a scale of 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating more symptoms. We included patients who completed an HRQL questionnaire at baseline and at least one questionnaire during follow-up. Baseline characteristics mafosfamide were compared using χ2 tests for categorical variables and general linear models or Kruskal–Wallis tests for continuous variables. Linear mixed effect models for repeated measurements were used to test for differences in MOS-HIV and symptoms scores during follow-up among the three groups, with baseline values included as a covariate. Model results were summarized by the estimated mean values during follow-up for the three groups, adjusted for baseline measurements. To investigate potential short-term toxicity of cART, we also compared the symptom scores among the three groups at week 8 using general linear models, with the baseline measurement included as a covariate.

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