MDC is an autofluorescent agent that is accumulated specifically in autophagolysosomes. As shown in Supporting Fig. S1A, treatment with GANT61 and GDC-0449 induced the accumulation of MDC in the cytoplasmic vacuoles in Huh7 cells (the accumulation was
greater in GANT61-treated cells compared to GDC-0449-treated cells). TEM also showed formation of autophagosomes and autophagolysosomes in GANT61-treated Huh7 cells, characterized by double-membrane vacuolar structures containing cytoplasmic contents (Supporting Fig. S1B). To assess the impact of Hh signaling activation on autophagy, GPCR Compound Library order HCC cells were treated with autophagy-inducing drugs (carbamazepine AT9283 cost and oxaliplatin) in the presence or absence of Hh ligand (Shh) or agonists (SAG or Pur) (carbamazepine is an autophagy-enhancing drug for hepatocytes; oxaliplatin is a second-generation potent platinum-based antineoplastic agent that can induce autophagy in HCC cells). As shown in Fig. 3A,B, activation of Hh signaling by Shh, SAG, or Pur prevented carbamazepine and oxaliplatin-induced LC3II accumulation in all three HCC cells; these findings indicate that activation of Hh signaling is able to prevent autophagy in HCC cells. In contrast, inhibition of
Hh pathway by GDC0449 or GANT61 enhanced carbamazepine and oxaliplatin-induced LC3II accumulation in all three HCC cells, which suggest that inhibition of Hh signaling synergizes
with autophagy-inducing drugs in autophagy induction (Fig. 3C,D). ATG (autophagy-related) genes encode proteins required for autophagy and play essential roles in autophagy. Autophagosome formation is mediated by two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems composed of Atg proteins, which culminate in conjugation of Atg12 to Atg5 and conversion of a soluble form of LC3-I to phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated membrane-bound form (LC3-II). The proteins Atg3, learn more Atg5, Atg6/Beclin1, Atg7, and Atg12 are involved in autophagosome formation and are well conserved from yeast to humans. Because many autophagic triggers up-regulate ATG genes, we examined whether GANT61 treatment might influence the expression levels of ATG genes in HCC cells. As shown in Supporting Fig. S2, GANT61 treatment did not increase the expression of ATG genes (Atg3 levels was slightly decreased in GANT61-treated Huh7 and Hep3B cells compared to cells treated with vehicle or Hh ligand/agonists). These results suggest that GANT61-induced autophagy is not associated with up-regulation of ATG gene expression. Although Bcl-2 family proteins were initially characterized as cell apoptosis regulators, it has recently become clear that they also control autophagy, playing a dual role in the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy.