Outside air temperature, humidity, and weather were recorded ever

Outside air temperature, humidity, and weather were recorded every 15 min during the time-trials using a WS9623 Wireless 868 MHz Weather Station (La

Crosse Technology, France). Data analyses Performance was check details assessed via overall time to Selleck Lazertinib complete the time-trial. The cyclists’ uphill time splits were also used as a measure of performance to account for any variation in skill in descending the hills. Plasma [Na+] (mmol.L-1), haematocrit, and blood glucose values (mmol.L-1) were analysed via the i-STAT point of care analyser (Abbott Point of Care Inc, Illinois, USA) and recorded in the field. Sweat sodium and chloride concentration (sweat [Na+], sweat [Cl-]) was analysed in small batches through a Cobas C311 module (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) using the Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) click here technique (mean CV = 2.01 ± 1.59%). Sweat sodium concentrations were then extrapolated to whole body sweat sodium losses using the calculations of Patterson et al. [17]. To ensure contamination of the patches nor leaching from the skin had not occurred sweat potassium was measured and all samples were within the

normal range [18]. Urine osmolality was measured via freezing point depression (Osomat 030, Genotec GmbH, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany), to indicate hydration status. Subjective feelings of thirst were indicated on a 100 mm visual analogue scale, which was used as a rating from 0 (not thirsty at all) to 100 (extremely thirsty) [15]. Statistical analysis Statistical analyses were performed using Stata Version 11.2 (StataCorp, Texas, USA). Normality of the data was evaluated using a Shapiro-Wilks test, and difference in variance was assessed by two-group variance comparison tests before all comparisons. Multivariate regression was used to assess the effect of sodium

supplements on exercise performance and plasma [Na+]. Differences in overall time and uphill time were compared whilst controlling for temperature and weather (wet or dry road). The difference in absolute (mmol.L-1) Amobarbital and relative (%) plasma [Na+] change was analysed controlling for average heart-rate. A paired t-test was also used to investigate differences in plasma [Na+] from pre-race to post-race within each intervention. Urine and sweat concentrations were well distributed and the absolute (mmol.L-1) and relative (%) change in electrolytes in each were analysed using a Student’s t-test. Changes in body mass, haematocrit, plasma volume change and fluid intake were assessed using multivariate regression controlling for mean heart rate and temperature. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. If a relationship was close to statistical significance, a Cohen’s d effect size was also calculated. Data is reported as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Results Descriptive characteristics of the participants are shown in Table 1. Participants were lean, with a mean sum of eight skinfolds of 82.

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