Penaeidin mRNA has been shown to be strongly expressed in many Pe

Penaeidin mRNA has been shown to be strongly expressed in many Penaeid shrimp including F. chinensis [23], L. vannamei [21] and P. monodon [43]. Using northern blot analysis, penaeidin transcript was detected in haemocytes but not in heart, intestine, gills, subcuticular epithelium, lymphoid organ, hepatopancreas or muscles in P. monodon [11]. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis indicated that penaeidin mRNA was detected in heart, gills, hepatopancreas nodules and testis but not in the brain of L. vannamei [10]. In addition to haemocytes, gills, heart, and intestine,

Metformin RT-PCR analysis indicated a positive signal for a ch-penaeidin transcript in the hepatopancreas, eye, subcuticular epithelium, brain and stomach that was not detected using the northern blot technique in F. chinensis [23]. In conclusion, a 234 bp Fein-Penaeidin gene was cloned from haemocytes

of the Indian white shrimp F. indicus with higher expression in haemocytes, heart, gills and muscles. The Fein-Penaeidin amino acid sequence of F. indicus shows 95% similarity to penaeidin of P. monodan. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Fein-Penaeidin is an independent group and is definitely distinct from the Fi-penaeidin and penaeidin 1, 2, 3 and 4 of other penaeidin of shrimp. The Ramachandran plot provided by procheck option indicated that 91.5% of the amino acids showed the target protein as a good quality model. The Fein-Penaeidin expression was significantly higher EGFR inhibitor at 6 h post injection with PG and V. parahaemolyticus indicating the immune resistance. This DAPT work was supported by Department of Biotechnology (DBT), New Delhi, India, under the Project grants code: BT/PR11907/AAQ/03/459/2009.

“Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are a subpathotye of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) that cause extraintestinal diseases in poultry that are collectively known as colibacillosis. Infection can occur through inhalation of contaminated dust or fecal matter, and then develop into airsacculitis. APEC then accesses the bloodstream, resulting in septicemia and potential for development of pericarditis and perihepatitis [18]. APEC may also be a food safety concern, with current research showing strong genetic similarities between APEC and human ExPEC [37], [51] and [60]. These similarities suggest zoonotic potential for APEC and APEC as a source for human ExPEC virulence genes [21], [35] and [60]. Recently, APEC has been shown to cause disease in a rat model for human meningitis [69]. Through horizontal and vertical transmission, APEC can cause disease and death in infected birds, resulting in large monetary losses through condemnation of carcasses and reduced production [4], [7] and [63].

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