Physical examinations of the patients revealed abdominal distension, rigidity, and rebound tenderness, indicating an acute mechanical bowel obstruction. Plain abdominal radiographs in the standing GSK2118436 in vivo position showed nonspecific signs such as dilated loops of bowel and air-fluid levels. Diagnosis was based on the abdomen tomography in 11 patients (84,6%), and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in two (15,3%) patients (Figure 3 : Abdomen Tomography,
Figure 4: Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy). Figure 3 Abdomen Tomography. Figure 4 Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Phytobezoars were found in the stomach alone in three (23%), in the jejunum and stomach in two (15,3%), in the jejunum alone in two (15,3%), and in the ileum alone in six (46,1%) patients (Table 2: Location of Phytobezoars). ACP-196 ic50 Table 2 Location of Phytobezoars n % Stomach 3 23 Stomach + Jejunum 2 15,3 Jejunum 2 15,3 Ileum 6 46,1 All patients underwent surgical intervention including gastrotomy in three
(23%), gastrotomy together with manual fragmentation and milking into cecum in two (15,3%), enterotomy in five (38,4%), and manual fragmentation and milking into cecum in three (23%) patients. (Table 3: Surgical Treatment Methods) (Figure 5: Gastrotomy), (Figure 6: Manual Fragmentation and Milking into Cecum). Table 3 Surgical Therapy Methods n % Gastrotomy 3 23 Gastrotomy + Manuel Fragmentation and Milking to Cecum 2 15,3 Enterotomy 5 38,4 Manuel Fragmentation and Milking to Cecum 3 23 Figure 5 Gastrotomy. Figure 6 Manual Fragmentation and Milking into Cecum. Pathological examinations were performed. Macroscopically, the material was composed of plant fibers with the seed of 4SC-202 clinical trial Diospyros Lotus at the center. Microscopic examination revealed no cellular elements, but a material composed of
plant fibers and food residue. Only one (7,6%) patient developed wound site infection, which was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and daily dressings. None of the patients died. The mean length of Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase hospital stay was 10,5 days (range, 5–18 days). The mean postoperative follow-up period was 21,3 months (range, 6–36 months), and no recurrence was observed. Discussion Gastrointestinal bezoars are classified according to their contents. Phytobezoars are the most common type of bezoars, formed by excessive consumption of herbal nutrients. Celery, grape, prune, Diospyros Lotus and pineapple are the main nutrients responsible for phytobezoars. Such nutrients contain high amounts of indigestible fibers, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and fruit tannins. Trichobezoars, composed of hardened hair and hair-like fibers, are usually encountered in children with mental retardation and in adults with mental illness. Lactobezoar occurs in low birth weight infants fed with concentrated milk and formulas in the first week of life, pharmacobezoar occurs due the use of concentrated drug formulas (cholestyramine and kayexalate); and food bezoars occur due to the use of concentrated food formulas [1–5].