Table 2.Changes in cholinesterase activity after exposition to paraoxon. Letter I indicates percent of cholinesterases inhibition.The level of cholinesterases in blood is an important marker of intoxication and strongly correlates with AChE level in CNS as well as PNS [24, 25]. Here, a deterioration of overall shape was observed when at least 50% of cholinesterase activity is inhibited. This corresponded to a dose of less than 170 nmol/kg b.wt. Cholinergic crises happened when more than 80% of cholinesterases were inhibited. This responded at 170 nmol/kg b.wt. of paraoxon. Deaths were observed when inhibition surpassed 90%. This corresponded to doses of 250 and 500 nmol/kg b.wt. Death was caused by a dose of 500 nmol/kg b.wt. per animal. The corresponding inhibition level was nearly 95%.
The differences were statistically relevance (ANOVA with Scheffe test, Origin 8 software, OriginLab). Only cholinesterasese activity levels caused by doses renging from 65 �C 125 nmol/kg b.wt. and doses 250 �C 500 nmol/kg b.wt. were indistinguishable from each other at a probability level P = 0.05. All other groups were found different with each other at a probability level P = 0.05.The examination of total levels of low molecular weight antioxidants was used as a marker of resulting oxidative stress. The anodic wave showed no significant change for any assayed plasma sample. The achieved current was equal to 2,940 �� 154 nA at a voltage of 665 �� 48 mV. The data suggest no oxidative stress in the laboratory animals during the experiments.
It seems that the paraoxon toxicology pathway was based only on short term neurotoxicity.This study suggests a quite extensive tolerance of organisms to small decreases in cholinesterase levels. On the other hand, the findings of acute poisoning by organophosphate are not useful for assessing shock states and consequences over a long term . Slight inhibition of cholinesterases
Diamond is not only a famous gemstone but also a promising technological material . Its properties include high hardness, fracture toughness, low friction coefficient, high Young modulus, increased wear resistance and a variety of substrates onto which it can be deposited . Although diamond is considered inert, its surface can be functionalized by various atoms or molecules . This gives rise to striking and unique Dacomitinib properties .
For instance, electrical conductivity and electron affinity of diamond are strongly influenced by the O- or H-termination of the diamond surface [4, 5]. The differences are mainly caused by the surface dipole of C-H and C-O bonds . O-terminated diamond is highly resistive, whereas H-terminated surface induces p-type surface conductivity even on an undoped diamond . These features can be applied for field-effect transistor (FET) devices [7, 8]. Furthermore, O-terminated surfaces are hydrophilic while H-terminated surfaces are hydrophobic.