The ability to selectively target specific subpopulations of GIRK

The ability to selectively target specific subpopulations of GIRK channels may prove effective in the treatment of disorders of excitability. “
“Abnormally large tremor during movement is a symptom of many movement disorders and significantly impairs activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to investigate whether repetitive magnetic brain stimulation (rTMS) can reduce tremor size during human movement. We hypothesised that inhibitory rTMS over motor cortex would reduce tremor size during subsequent movement. The study involved 26 healthy young adults

(21 ± 2 years) SGI-1776 and began with application of single TMS stimuli to measure baseline corticospinal excitability. The response to stimulation was recorded in hand muscles with electromyography. Subjects then performed a 3-min task to measure baseline tremor during movement. This involved matching index finger position with a moving target on a computer screen. Tremor was recorded with an accelerometer on the fingernail. Finger acceleration was analysed with fast-Fourier transform to quantify tremor in the physiological range (7.8–12.2 Hz). Subjects then received 10 min of real (n = 13) or sham (n = 13) inhibitory rTMS. Tremor and corticospinal

excitability were then remeasured. FK866 Real rTMS significantly decreased corticospinal excitability by ~30% (P = 0.022) and increased tremor size during movement by ~120% (P = 0.047) relative to sham rTMS. However, the direction of tremor change was opposite to that hypothesised for inhibitory rTMS. The results suggest that rTMS over Paclitaxel nmr human motor cortex can modulate action tremor and the level of corticospinal

excitability may be important for setting the amplitude of action tremor in healthy young adults. “
“In adult mice, classical conditioning in which whisker stimulation is paired with an electric shock to the tail results in a decrease in the frequency of head movements, induces expansion of the cortical representation of stimulated vibrissae and enhances inhibitory synaptic interactions within the ‘trained’ barrels. We investigated whether such a simple associative learning paradigm also induced changes in neuronal excitability. Using whole-cell recordings from ex vivo slices of the barrel cortex we found that layer IV excitatory cells located in the cortical representation of the ‘trained’ row of vibrissae had a higher frequency of spikes recorded at threshold potential than neurons from the ‘untrained’ row and than cells from control animals. Additionally, excitatory cells within the ‘trained’ barrels were characterized by increased gain of the input–output function, lower amplitudes of fast after-hyperpolarization and decreased effect of blocking of BK channels by iberiotoxin.

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