The effect of radiographic contrast on pre-dialysis renal failure should also be taken into consideration in the choice of imaging modality. Veins of adequate size (probably
> 2.5 mm) identified on USA should be used. Arteries with adequate size and flow identified Akt targets on USA should be used (probably > 2 mm). No recommendations possible based on Level I or II evidence. (Suggestions are based on Level III and IV evidence) All patients, especially those with co-morbid conditions, should be referred to a vascular access surgeon well in advance of the anticipated need for haemodialysis. The exact timing depends on patient-related factors and local facilities. Several procedures may be required to establish a useable native AVF. Maturation of AVF may be prolonged (3 months or more) in some patients. Skin at the intended cannulation site should be prepared with an alcohol based solution. (Level II evidence) Cannulation should be undertaken using a clean or ‘aseptic’ technique. (Level II evidence) Compared with the rope ladder technique, button-hole technique is associated with an increased risk of local and systemic infection and should not be routinely performed. (Level II evidence) (Suggestions are based on Level III and IV evidence) It is suggested that assessment of the
AVF/AVG be undertaken each time prior to cannulation. Patency should be checked for adequate bruit and thrill, and the site inspected for signs of infection. Rope ladder technique is suggested for cannulation of arteriovenous fistulae and grafts. Button-hole technique Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor maybe useful
for patients with significantly reduced cannulation area of the AVF after discussion of the potential benefits and harms. We suggest strict adherence to infection control procedures be undertaken to minimize infection risk when using button hole technique for cannulation. Patients should be instructed on the care of the AVF/AVG between cannulation sessions in 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl particular: ■ Vein preservation: avoidance of cannulation in the effected limb The preferred vascular access type is the AVF, followed by the AVG.[6, 9, 10] In patients where the AVG or AVG has not been created, is not ready for use or is not possible, haemodialysis can be performed using a central venous catheter (CVC). Subjects dialyzing using central venous catheters are at increased risk for catheter-related infection (CRI) and have increased morbidity and mortality as well as higher costs.[1, 11-13] In Australia (57%) and in New Zealand (69%) of patients commence haemodialysis through a central venous catheter (tunnelled and non-tunnelled). The mortality rate for patients commencing haemodialysis with a CVC, is higher than for patients commencing with an AVF or AVG, for all age groups.