The results showed that when the targets were EC-9706 cells and p

The results showed that when the targets were EC-9706 cells and p321-loaded T2A2 cells, the peptide-specific CTLs induced by p321-9L and p321-1Y9L showed more potent cytotoxic activity than that of p321 at all the three effector/target ratios. In addition, the results from the ELISPOT assay showed that p321-1Y9L could produce more IFN-γ than that of p321 and p321-9L. Combined with the results both in vitro and in vivo, p321-1Y9L could be the most potent CD8+ T cell epitope compared with p321 and p321-9L. In this study, we designed an analogue of the native peptide p321 by using P1 (Y)

and P9 (L) substitution. The immunogenicity of p321 and its analogues p321-9L and p321-1Y9L was investigated in vitro (in PBMCs from four healthy donors) and in vivo (in HLA-A2.1/Kb transgenic mice), and our Selleck GSK126 results showed that the analogues p321-9L and P321-1Y9L could efficiently induce COX-2-specific, HLA-A2-restricted CTLs, which could recognize and lyse tumour cells presenting the naturally processed wild-type COX-2 epitope. An effective cancer vaccine must have features to overcome immunological tolerance and maintain CTLs exhibiting the required specificity and avidity [3]. Analogue epitopes, enhanced for either HLA binding or TCR signalling, have been shown to be more effective at breaking immunological tolerance

than cognate wild-type epitopes. Substitution of amino acids in peptide epitopes is thought to be effective BGJ398 purchase in inducing peptide-specific CTLs [22, 29, 30]. In previous studies, analogues substituted at MHC anchor residues have been tested in several tumour antigens, such as GP2, NY-ESO-1, gp100, HER-2/neu, p53, Hsp60 as well as

MART-1, and some of them successfully Adenosine improved the immunogenicity of the CTL epitopes [17, 18, 29, 31–36]. In our study, the analogues p321-9L and p321-1Y9L showed higher binding affinity and stability than that of the native peptide, p321; p321-9L and p321-1Y9L were effective in inducing a peptide-specific CTL response both in vitro and in vivo. It is possible that increased immunogenicity with the p321-9L and p321-1Y9L may be derived from the higher binding stability. It has been showed that MHC anchor-substituted analogues derived from gp100 or HER-2 could induce CTL response more efficiently than their corresponding wild-type peptide epitopes [31, 37, 38]. Our study further verified these results. COX-2-specific CTLs from transgenic mice were shown to have the ability to kill tumour cells. The wild-type peptide p321 and its analogues p321-9L, p321-1Y9L were able to induce specific CTLs in vivo. The analogue p321-1Y9L could produce more IFN-γ than that of p321 and p321-9L, although the CTLs induced by p321-Y9L have equal cytotoxic activity with that of p321-9L.

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