These data suggested that exogenous administration of CGS21680 co

These data suggested that exogenous administration of CGS21680 could prevent early events associated with the induction of EAMG, for example, events linked to the T-cell compartment (Ag recognition, epitope spreading, and T-cell expansion) [[2]]. However, in established EAMG, once damage to the neuromuscular junction occurred as a consequence of auto-immune memory,

T- and B-cell responses (in combination with complement activation) directed against the AChR, treatment with CGS21680 was much Dasatinib price less effective. A2AR, similar to other Gs-protein-coupled receptors, signals mainly via the adenylate cyclase–cAMP–PKA canonical pathway [[31]]. Recent data have further explained how the A2AR-mediated increase of cAMP may inhibit general T-cell responses such as proliferation [[32]] and cytokine production [[28, 33]]. Therefore the PKA inhibitor (H-89) was included in this assay to verify whether suppression of inflammation mediated by A2AR depended on the cAMP pathway. Furthermore, whether

A2AR-mediated inhibition occurred only during the presence of the A2AR agonist or GDC-0449 mouse if it conferred a permanent alteration to T-cell function was also examined. These results provided evidence that A2AR agonists persistently inhibited the production of anti-AChR IgG antibodies mediated partly as a result of the inhibition of PKA activation (Fig. 4). We next determined the nature of the B cells or CD4+ T cells impacted by CGS21680. First, both proliferation and anti-AChR IgG secretion by B cells was assessed, demonstrating that CGS21680 neither altered the anti-AChR IgG secretion profile nor interfered with B-cell proliferation (Fig. 5). These results were similar to previously published reports [[34]] that demonstrated that B cells responded poorly to A2AR stimulation (determined mafosfamide by measuring cAMP levels in CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T, cells and B cells) following incubation with an A2AR agonist. This led us next to focus on the effect of CGS21680 on CD4+ T-cell function. Although the symptoms

of MG and EAMG are the result of auto-antibodies, CD4+ T cells specific for the target antigen (along with the cytokines secreted) have an important role in the disease development and progression. CD4+ T cells play a role in pathogenesis by driving the synthesis of high-affinity anti-AChR antibodies, as well as secreting proinflammatory cytokines [[6, 8, 9]]. Binding of those antibody subclasses to AChR at the neuromuscular junction triggers complement-mediated destruction of the postsynaptic membrane [[9]]. Here, we demonstrated that the number of Th1 cells and Th2 cells were decreased following A2AR activation (Fig. 6 and 9). This result challenged the hypothesis that lymphocyte-expressed A2AR might shift the Th-cell responses from a Th1 toward a Th2 response.

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