These different stimuli appear to act at different substrate levels either upstream FG-4592 in vitro or downstream from mTOR. Hornberger and colleagues have suggested that the mechanical activation from external loads (as one may see from a resistance exercise session) may be enhanced with the presence of PA . It has been shown that exogenous supplied PA can stimulate the mTOR pathway via its activation of the substrate S6 kinase [4, 7]. Interestingly, the binding of PA to S6 kinase may occur independently of mTOR , suggesting that PA may augment the signaling response when mTOR is activated by exercise. These data
provide an interesting hypothesis that the ingestion of PA, in combination with a resistance training program, may stimulate potentially greater gains in muscle strength and growth than resistance training alone. The ability to augment muscle strength and size has important implications for various population
groups. Specifically, the ability for a dietary supplement to enhance muscle strength and increase lean mass would be of consequence for competitive athletes who are focused on maximizing strength and size gains, and older adults who are battling the effects of aging and Elafibranor cost sarcopenia. PF-04929113 purchase Presently, there does not appear to be any study available that has examined effect of PA supplementation on strength and lean tissue adaptation. Therefore, it is the purpose of this pilot study to examine if PA ingestion can enhance strength, muscle thickness selleckchem and lean
tissue accruement during an 8-week resistance training program more so than training only. Methods Subjects Twenty resistance-trained men (at least 1 year of training experience) volunteered to participate in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated measures study. None of the subjects were competitive strength/power athletes, but all subjects were currently engaged in recreational weight lifting that included using the squat and bench press exercises. Following an explanation of all procedures, risks and benefits, each subject gave his informed written consent prior to participating in this study. The University Institutional Review Board approved the research protocol. Subjects were asked to not use any anabolic dietary supplements or drugs know to increase muscle and/or performance. Screening for dietary supplements or drugs was accomplished by a health questionnaire filled out during subject recruitment. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, 750 mg phosphatidic acid (PA; 23.1 ± 4.4 y; 176.7 ± 6.7 cm; 86.5 ± 21.2 kg) or 750 mg rice flour, which served as placebo (PL; 22.5 ± 2.0 y; 179.8 ± 5.4 cm; 89.4 ± 13.6 kg). Four subjects were dropped from the study. One of the subjects was injured during a recreational activity, another subject dropped out due to a family crisis, and the other two subjects were removed due to a lack of compliance.