This makes it difficult or sometimes impossible to collect, trans

This makes it difficult or sometimes impossible to collect, transport, process and store these seed. For some tropical trees, the collection of naturally regenerated seedlings (wildings) from forests is an alternative option for obtaining reproductive material. However, this can be time consuming and expensive, and the transplant

success rate may be low. These problems have raised interest in vegetative propagation. The rooting of cuttings has been used for centuries in Japan for producing reproductive material of Cryptomeria japonica and today this is still the most frequently used method for vegetative propagation in forestry ( Wilhelm, 2005). During the past two decades, micropropagation methods, such as microcuttings or somatic embryogenesis, have also been increasingly deployed ( FAO, 2004). The seed of temperate and boreal trees used for forestry in Europe and North America are largely obtained from selected seed stands and seed orchards. Within the European Union (28 countries), there are over 58,000 seed stands and nearly 1,700 seed orchards producing seed of about 40 tree species (European Commission, 2014). In Canada, there are 355 seed orchards producing improved seed for 28 species (Natural Resources Canada, 2012), while in the USA around 150 breeding programmes produce improved seed

for more than 70 species (FAO, 2014). In Canada and the USA, Alectinib solubility dmso the vast majority of seed orchards are run by cooperatives involving both private and public sectors, while in Europe seed orchards are often managed by government agencies or government-owned companies. In the case of Acacia and Eucalyptus spp., until recently, bulk seed collected from natural stands was the major source of material for establishing plantations around the world. Today, new plantations of these species are being established using improved seed or by deploying clonal planting stock. Australia, Indonesia,

Malaysia and Vietnam all produce significant amounts of genetically-improved seed of A. mangium. Seed orchard material is used extensively for eucalypts originating from southern Australia (notably E. benthamii, E. dunnii, E. globulus and E. nitens) as they are generally difficult to clonally propagate. The tropical eucalypts (including E. camaldulensis, Montelukast Sodium E. grandis, E. pellita, E. tereticornis and E. urophylla) can be readily propagated by cuttings and this has allowed widespread deployment of clones of pure species and interspecific hybrids. Vegetative propagation of the tropical acacias is less widespread than for tropical eucalypts. In clonal propagation of A. mangium, for example, the ageing of clonal hedges leads to loss of vigour of planting stock. The A. mangium × auriculiformis hybrid, however, does not suffer this ageing problem and it is clonally propagated on a large scale in Vietnam.

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