To conclude, the major phenotype that we have observed associated

To conclude, the major phenotype that we have observed associated Epigenetics Compound Library purchase with PTPs deletion in L. monocytogenes was changes in GlcNAc glycosylation of WTA. However, the precise role of the tyrosine phosphatases in the modification of this extracellular polysaccharide remains unclear. The fact that there are similar PTPs in other pathogenic bacteria emphasizes the importance

of understanding the role of bacterial PTPs and tyrosine phosphorylation. This work was supported in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health to Daniel A. Portnoy AI27655 and AI063302 and by the Legacy Heritage grant 1640/08 of the Israeli Science Foundation to R.N.-P. “
“Klebsiella pneumoniae 287-w carries three small narrow host range (NHR) plasmids (pIGMS31, pIGMS32, and pIGRK), which could be maintained in several closely related selleck compound species of Gammaproteobacteria, but not in Alphaproteobacteria. The plasmids contain different mobilization systems (MOB), whose activity in Escherichia coli was demonstrated in the presence of the helper transfer system originating from plasmid RK2. The MOBs of pIGMS31 and pIGMS32 are highly conserved in many bacterial plasmids (members of the MOB family), while the predicted MOB of pIGRK has a unique structure,

encoding a protein similar to phage-related integrases. The MOBs of pIGMS31 and pIGMS32 enabled the transfer of heterologous replicons from E. coli into both gammaproteobacterial and alphaproteobacterial hosts, which suggests that these NHR plasmids contain broad host range MOB systems. Such plasmids therefore find more represent efficient carrier molecules, which may act as natural suicide vectors promoting the spread of diverse genetic information (including other types of mobile elements, e.g. resistance transposons) among evolutionarily distinct bacterial species. Thus, mobilizable NHR plasmids may play a much more important role in horizontal gene transfer than previously thought. Plasmids are major vehicles of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among diverse bacterial populations.

Besides replication, stabilization, and transfer functions, these replicons often carry an additional genetic load that may allow the recipient strain to adapt to changeable environmental conditions (Toussaint & Merlin, 2002). They are also convenient targets for the transposition of various transposable elements (TEs; including resistance or metabolic transposons), which can be ‘picked up’ from chromosomes and other co-residing replicons and disseminated by plasmids in HGT. It is thought that broad host range (BHR) promiscuous plasmids, which can be maintained in a wide range of bacterial hosts, play a predominant role in HGT (Christopher et al., 1989). However, the majority of the plasmids identified so far are narrow host range (NHR) replicons, whose role in HGT seems to be limited to closely related species.

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