When we compared these gyrB sequences to our data, sequences DQ140396 and DQ140397  were clustered with BT 1A Genetic groups 1 and 2 of our study, CHIR-99021 order respectively. This is further justification for the separation of BT 1A strains into two phylogenetic lineages. As in our study, the
presence of ystB gene correlated with the clonal groups, except in one strain . The lack of the ystB gene in PCR test does AZD8931 cost not always correlate with the phylogenetic lineages, since our study also found six strains without the ystB gene in BT 1A Genetic group 1. However, only the use of hybridization analysis or sequencing would confirm the PCR results. In a recent study of the whole genome sequences no evident structural difference was found with ystB-positive BT 1A/O:5 and BT 1A/O:36 strains . Therefore, it is likely that the two whole genome sequences represent one of the genetic groups of BT 1A of the present study. Blast searches showed that the sequences we obtained for Genetic group 1 were nearly identical with the ones from the above mentioned whole genome sequences, while for Genetic group 2 no matching sequences
were detected. We used DOC-PAGE based classification of LPS to subtype our Y. enterocolitica strains. This method offered a practical substitute for O-serotyping, since there are no commercial O-specific antisera available for numerous Y. enterocolitica Dinaciclib in vivo serotypes. The results were consistent with earlier O-serotyping of the BT 1A strains using available commercial antisera  which demonstrated that 42 subtype C2 strains were of serotype O:5 and that 56 subtype B2 strains agglutinated with anti-O:8 antiserum indicating that they probably were of the common serotype O:7,8. However, the strains with O:8 antigen, were found in LPS subgroups B2c and B2d which indicates that the classification of subgroups of B2 was tentative and differences could also be inherent to the silver staining procedure. The clinical BT 1A strains showed a wide diversity in their LPS types and this is most likely also reflected in their O-serotypes. The majority of the strains, 37%, had LPS subtype C1 that is similar PLEKHB2 to that of serotypes O:6,30 and O:6,31, and 15% of
the strains had subtype C2, i.e., that of serotype O:5. Globally, the serotypes O:6 and O:5 have been the dominant serotypes of BT 1A associated with diarrhoea . In the present study the strains of LPS subtype C1 and C2 as well as the strains of BT 1A Genetic group 2, demonstrated significant resistance to complement killing, which suggests that the strains of these subgroups may have more pathogenic potential than the other studied strains. Bacterial pathogens have several strategies to resist host defence mechanisms, including resistance to the bactericidal activity of the human serum complement . Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains are able to resist serum killing by YadA- and Ail-mediated binding of the serum complement regulatory proteins factor H and C4 binding protein [36–38].