A blood count showed a white blood cell (WBC) total count of 116

A blood count showed a white blood cell (WBC) total count of 11.6 × 109/L and an eosinophilia selleck chemical of 10%. Her condition worsened, and she was admitted to the Nairobi Hospital on October 22 with a stiff

neck, acute proptosis (Figure 1), skin rashes, periorbital edema, swollen lips, dizziness, mental restlessness, and a slight fever. An ophthalmologist was called to review her case, and he described her presentation as “pseudotumors of the orbit.” Computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no evidence of cancer but a very severe form of inflammation involving the eye balls, especially the extraocular muscles behind the eyes in the sockets. She was initially managed on steroid/antibiotic eye drops (neomycin with dexamethasone), antibiotics (ceftriaxone, sulbactam, and levofloxacin), and heavy doses of prednisolone. Following the discovery that she had swum in Lake Victoria during the church retreat, together with the 10-year-old girl already being treated for bilharzia, she was promptly diagnosed with Katayama syndrome1–3 and

treated with praziquantel. She improved rapidly and was discharged on October 31. A serological test for bilharzia at CTTM 1 year later gave a titer of 1 : 128, and she was re-treated with praziquantel to ensure complete parasitological cure.3 An adult male who had also been to Mwanza with the church group was attended to at the Nairobi Hospital on November

2, 2008 with acute orchitis, hydrocele of the right testis, fever, low Y-27632 back pain, blurring vision, and photophobia, with a leukocytosis of 22.2 × 109/L. He was given parenteral antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and sedatives. He seemed to improve but returned within 2 days after being discharged. He tested positive at CTTM for bilharzia antibody at a titer of 1 : 4096. Fenbendazole He improved rapidly after treatment with praziquantel, although the testis remained swollen and nontender for approximately 1 month. These three cases prompted a discussion with the SDA church authorities. It was agreed that individuals from the Nairobi-based group who had traveled to Mwanza should be tested at CTTM for bilharzia antibodies and blood counts. If possible, they would also do stool and urine tests followed by a physical examination. Schistosoma antibody titers were to be determined with serial dilutions of patients’ sera down to titrations of 1 : 8192 (Cellognost-Schistosomiasis H, Siemens Healthcare, Marburg, Germany). A total of 77 church members, 40 females and 37 males, presented themselves for examination and laboratory testing over the next 2 weeks. Of these, 54 (70.1%) were aged between 6 and 15 years; 66 (85.7%) were positive for bilharzia with antibody titers of 1 : 1024 and above. Most (81.8%) of the 66 infected patients had high titers of 1 : 4096 or above.

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