These differential genes may be related to the immune-protective

These differential genes may be related to the immune-protective antigens that are shared by some serotypes. Therefore, we speculated that these genes AZD2281 cell line may serve as potential vaccine candidates for a multivalent vaccine that can provide cross-protection against multiple serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. Notably, in this study, the wzy gene (b12), which encodes the Wzy protein, was found to be present in serotypes 3, 6, 8, and 15. However, wzz1 (b3) and wzz2 (b10) – two differential DNA sequences of

the wzz gene that encode the Wzz protein – were detected in serotypes 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 13, and 15 and serotypes 3, 6, and 8, respectively. We presumed that the ORF of the wzz gene showed variable sequences in different serotypes or the sequences in some serotypes were fragmentary. The Wzy protein and Wzz protein participate in the Wzy-dependent O-antigen biosynthesis (Larue et al., 2009). In this pathway, the regulation of the length of the O-antigen chain attached to lipopolysaccharide is dependent on the inner-membrane protein Wzz, and this regulation plays

an important role in virulence in several bacteria (Kintz et al., 2008; Marolda et al., 2008; Purins et al., 2008). Further studies should aim to determine whether the wzz gene is fragmentary in some serotypes, whether the sequences are different among the serotypes, and whether this distribution has an influence on the virulence of different serotypes. Further,

MK-1775 in vitro in this study, we identified a differential DNA sequence (a22) that was detected only in serotypes 1, 9, and 11; this gene –wzmt– represents the ORFs wzm and wzt that encode the ABC-transporter integral membrane subunit and the ABC-transporter ATP-binding acetylcholine subunit, respectively. Both proteins belong to the ABC-transporter system, and the ABC-dependent pathway is another O-antigen-biosynthesis mechanism (Cuthbertson et al., 2007; Marolda et al., 2008). Therefore, we speculated that serotypes 1, 9, and 11 adopt the ABC-dependent O-antigen-biosynthesis pathway, and the serotypes with the wzy gene and wzz gene adopt the Wzy-dependent O-antigen biosynthesis pathways; however, this hypothesis should be confirmed in further studies. This study is the first to show that the autotransporter adhesin (a7) shows significant differences among the serotypes and is present in serotypes 1, 5, 7, 8, 9, and 11. Autotransporter adhesin has been reported to be a novel important putative virulence factor in several gram-negative pathogens (Linke et al., 2006; Valle et al., 2008), and our study is the first report on the diverse distribution of autotransporter adhesion among the 15 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. A previous study has also reported that a gene encoding autotransporter adhesin was upregulated when the A. pleuropneumoniae interacted with porcine lung epithelial cells (Auger et al., 2009).

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