Alteration PF-02341066 chemical structure of neuronal activity in vivo has been demonstrated to correlate to behavioral and cognitive impairment following neuronal

intoxication ( Bale et al., 2011, Chen et al., 2011 and Fahrion et al., 2012). In addition several studies have provided neurotoxicity assessments by measuring spontaneous electrical activity alterations with MEAs and demonstrating that neurotoxic doses in vitro are within the range shown to cause neurologic symptoms in vivo. ( Wada et al., 1995, Gopal, 2003 and Gopal et al., 2007). Our results seem to confirm that the prediction of the neurotoxicity of a mixture, based on MFR as an end point and on the predictions of the single components, is feasible when the selected compounds are applied together. However, further experiments click here with other chemicals as well as with an increasing number of components in the mixture are necessary to address the issue if contrasting effects are sufficiently predicted with the approach described here. There are no conflicts of interest. The research in this article was supported by

the European Commission – Joint Research Centre, Systems Toxicology Work Programme 2011–2012. “
“Hydroquinone (HQ) is an eminent environmental pollutant with important effects on immune cells. This phenolic compound is found in the atmosphere mainly as a result of the burning of benzene (BZ) in adulterated fuel. Together with BZ, HQ is also a component of tobacco, and high concentrations are released during smoking (McGregor, 2007). In addition, HQ is a relevant BZ endogenous metabolite, and it has been clearly demonstrated that HQ is a key determinant of immunosuppression and the development of leukemias in humans exposed to BZ (Badham and Winn, 2010, Bi et al., 2010 and Atkinson, 2009). BZ is promptly absorbed by the respiratory tract and skin and extensively metabolized to HQ. Circulating HQ gains access to other compartments, such as bone marrow, Progesterone and easily interacts with circulating immune cells, leading to oxidative DNA lesions (Melikian et al., 2008, McGregor,

2007, Varkonyi et al., 2006 and Leanderson, 1993). Industrial development has caused a huge increase in environmental pollutants, directly connected to the increase in human respiratory diseases (Perez-Padilla et al., 2010 and D’Amato et al., 2010). Inhalation of these substances leads to different degrees of toxicity, depending on the deposition site of toxicants in the respiratory tract and, therefore, makes the lung an important target for xenobiotic actions. The lung is a highly specialized tissue composed of different types of cells (Azad et al., 2008 and Emmendoerffer et al., 2000), which react to breathing pollutants and/or microorganisms dispersed in the air, triggering a complex cascade of inflammatory events to mount a host defense.

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