Ciprofloxacin was used as a positive control as it is known to induce recA expression in S. aureus (Figure 7(B)) [37] and H2O was used as a negative control (data not shown). The ability

to induce the SOS response was shown recently for the hexaclick here peptide WRWYCR that exerts its broad bactericidal activity by inducing the SOS response through learn more stalling of bacterial replications forks [36]. Figure 7 LP5 induces rec A expression in S . aureus . (A) LP5 or (B) ciprofloxacin (positive control) was added to wells in TSB agar plates containing the S. aureus 8325–4 derived lacZ reporter strain HI2682 (recA::lacZ). Incubation time was 18 h. Data are one representative of three independent experiments, which all gave similar results. To our knowledge these results show for the first time that a peptoid is able to bind DNA, induce the SOS response and interfere with the functions of DNA gyrase and Topo IV. Conclusions In conclusion, we propose a model in which LP5 exerts a dual MOA. At 1 × MIC the lysine-peptoid hybrid traverses the cytoplasmic membrane of S. aureus without causing lethal damage and binds the chromosomal DNA, inhibits topo IV and DNA gyrase and thereby the replication machinery by blocking AZD8931 ic50 the accessibility to DNA. The

inhibitory effect on DNA replication induces the SOS response leading to inhibition of growth. At concentrations of 5 × MIC and above, LP5 also targets the cell membrane leading to leakage of intracellular compounds like ATP, resulting in cell death. These results add new information about the MOA of a new synthetic peptide, and advance our knowledge of these compounds as potential antimicrobial therapeutics. Methods Peptide synthesis The synthesis of LP5 was performed Bay 11-7085 using a combination

of the sub-monomer approach and Fmoc SPPS, as previously described [38]. Strains and culture conditions Three S. aureus strains were used in this study: Strain 8325–4 [24], FPR3757 USA300 a multidrug resistant community-acquired strain (CA-MRSA) implicated in outbreaks of skin and soft tissue infection [25] and HI2682, which contains a recA-lacZ fusion made in this study as described below. The bacteria were grown in Tryptone Soy Broth (TSB, CM0129 Oxoid). When appropriate, antibiotics were added at the following concentrations: 5 and 10 μg/ml tetracycline and 50 μg/ml ciprofloxacin (Sigma). Minimum inhibitory concentration determination The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LP5 was determined using the modified microtiter broth dilution assay for cationic antimicrobial peptides from Hancock (http://​cmdr.​ubc.​ca/​bobh/​methods/​MODIFIEDMIC.​html). Briefly, serial 2- fold dilution of LP5 (at 10 times the required test concentration) was made in 0.2% bovine serum albumin (Sigma, A7906) and 0.01% acetic acid in polypropylene tubes. Overnight cultures of S.

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