Finally, we tested the impact of individually knocking down four

Finally, we tested the impact of individually knocking down four enzymes of the RNAi pathway: Dcr-1, Dcr-2, Ago-1 and Ago-2 on the replication dynamics of DENV. Methods Cells Schneider S2 cells (Drosophila melanogaster embryonic cells) [22] acquired from the Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (Bloomington, IN) were maintained at 28°C in conditioned S2 media composed of Schneider’s Drosophila media (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS, Invitrogen), 1 mM L-glutamine (Invitrogen), and 1× Penicillin-Streptomycin-Fungizone® Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor (PSF, Invitrogen). Media used for dsRNA/siRNA dilutions (unconditioned S2 media) was Schneider’s

Drosophila media supplemented with 1 mM L-glutamine and 1× PSF. C6/36 cells (Ae. AZD1480 manufacturer albopictus epithelial cells) [23] were maintained at 32°C with 5% CO2 in minimal essential media (MEM, Invitrogen) supplemented with 10% FBS, 2 mM L-glutamine, 2 mM nonessential amino acids (Invitrogen) Bucladesine research buy and 0.05 mg/ml gentamycin (Invitrogen). Viruses To compare the replication of the four serotypes of DENV, three isolates of each were selected from a broad array of geographical locations (Table 1). Each isolate was passaged in C6/36 cells to generate a stock, designated C6/36 p1 MOI 0.1, for use in all experiments. C6/36 cells were infected at MOI 0.1, incubated

for two hrs with occasional, gentle rocking under the conditions described above. Five days post infection (pi), supernatant was collected, clarified by centrifugation, stabilized with 0.1 times volume of 10× SPG (2.18 mM sucrose, 60 mM L-glutamic acid, 38 mM potassium phosphate [monobasic], 72 mM potassium phosphate [dibasic]), and stored at -80°C. The titer of each C6/36 p1 MOI 0.1 stock was determined via serial titration in C6/36 cells as described below. Table 1 Passage history and titer (in C6/36 cells) of the 12 dengue virus strains used

in this study Serotype Strain ID Country of isolation Source Collection Year Passage History1 Titer (log10 pfu/ml) Obtained from2 DENV-1 JKT 85-1415 Indonesia Human serum 1985 C6/36 p2 7.2 WRCEVA DENV-1 1335 TVP Sri Lanka Human serum 1981 Inoculated mosquito-1X, PLEKHM2 C6/36 p2 7.2 WRCEVA DENV-1 AusHT15 Australia Human serum 1983 C6/36 p2 7.5 WRCEVA DENV-2 Tonga/1974 Tonga Human serum 1974 Mosquito-1X, C6/36 p5 8.0 NIAID DENV-2 DOO-0372 Thailand Human serum 1988 Previous history unknown, C6/36 p8 8.0 NIAID DENV-2 NGC Proto New Guinea Human serum 1944 Inoculated monkey- 1X 7.5 NIAID DENV-3 89 SriLan 1: D2783 Sri Lanka Human serum 1989 C6/36 p2 7.6 UNC DENV-3 89 SriLan 2: D1306 Sri Lanka Human serum 1983 C6/36 p2 7.6 UNC DENV-3 Sleman/78 Indonesia (Java) Human serum 1978 Mosquito-1X, Vero p2, C6/36 p4 7.2 NIAID DENV-4 1228 TVP Indonesia Human serum 1978 Mosquito p2, C6/36 p2 7.1 WRCEVA DENV-4 779157 Taiwan Human serum 1988 C6/36 p5 7.4 WRCEVA DENV-4 BeH 403714 Brazil Human serum 1982 C6/36 p3 7.2 WRCEVA 1cell type for passage followed by total number of passages (p) in that cell type 2 WRCEVA: provided by Dr.

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