Leaf and soil contributions were quantified separately by cuvette

Leaf and soil contributions were quantified separately by cuvette and chamber measurements, including fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene and monoterpenes). The latter have been as well characterized for monoterpenes in

detail. Based on measured atmospheric trace gas concentrations, the flux tower site can be characterized as remote and rural with low anthropogenic disturbances.\n\nOur results presented here encourage future experimental efforts to be directed towards year round integrated biosphere-atmosphere measurements I-BET151 in vivo and development of process-oriented models of forest-atmosphere exchange taking the special case of a multi-layered and multi-species tree stand into account. As climate

change likely leads to spatial extension of hemiboreal forest ecosystems a Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor deep understanding of the processes and interactions therein is needed to foster management and mitigation strategies. (C) 2010 Elsevier BM. All rights reserved.”
“Background. The mechanisms responsible for the sporadic occurrence of extramedullary haematopoiesis in polytransfused thalassaemic patients have not yet been clarified. In this study we tried to elucidate the influence of genotype and other factors on the presence of extramedullary haematopoiesis. Materials and methods. We performed a retrospective database review of our polytransfused thalassaemic patients between

January 2006 and December 2011. Demographic, transfusional, genetic, radiological and biochemical data were collected and statistically analysed. Results. Extramedullary haematopoiesis was found in 18 out of 67 patients (27%). All of them were splenectomised, Selleckchem CDK inhibitor had a higher nucleated red blood cell count and higher levels of the soluble form of transferrin receptor with respect to patients without extramedullary haematopoiesis; furthermore, patients with EMH had a lower transfusional iron intake and a higher pre-transfusion haemoglobin level as compared with those without extramedullary haematopoiesis. Ten out of the 18 patients with extramedullary haematopoiesis were compound heterozygotes for IVS 1-6/codon 39. A high frequency of thrombotic events was also recorded among all patients followed at our centre with this genetic profile. Discussion. Among our cohort of thalassaemic polytransfused patients, extramedullary haematopoiesis was not such a rare event. Furthermore, we identified a group of patients, most of whom were compound heterozygotes for IVS 1-6/codon 39, with increased soluble transferrin receptor levels and excessive expansion of erythroid marrow probably responsible for the tendency to develop extramedullary haematopoiesis.

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