tamarii and A. fumigatus are also documented producers of CPA [34, 35], the occurrence of these species on Brazil nut highlights the need for regulations which also consider
this mycotoxin. PCR-based molecular diagnosis of microorganisms offers specificity and sensitivity appropriate for early detection, appropriate for both HACCP purposes  and implementation of countermeasures for control of microbial contamination. As Brazil nut is an extractivist crop, with aflatoxigenic species occurring throughout the production chain [32, 37], safe production is dependent upon identification of CCPs and subsequent implementation of detection methods at these points. The mitochondrial genome is an attractive molecule for application in fungal taxonomy and systematics, with a rapid rate of evolution and limited genetic recombination [38, 39]. For selleck chemicals Aspergillus, both specific and intraspecific level comparisons have been described [40, 41]. Considering the high copy number per cell, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is also easily amplifiable by PCR and appropriate for BMN 673 concentration characterization through RFLP analysis. In the current study, analysis of the mtDNA SSU rRNA gene region enabled the design of a genus-specific primer pair for amplification of a 480 bp PCR www.selleckchem.com/products/sn-38.html product in Aspergillus. Specific
amplification was possible using DNA extracted from pure cultures, as well as from naturally contaminated Brazil nut samples. Together with the developed IAC, this PCR-based method has potential for inclusion in the setup of HACCP concepts. Many attempts with genetic markers for differentiation
of section members at the interspecific GPX6 level have not provided sufficient resolution for detection of small differences across the fungal genomes. In the case of the closely related species A. flavus and A. oryzae, minor differences across the genome can only be revealed by detecting differences across numerous loci, such as digestion of total DNA with restriction endonucleases  or aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway gene interspecific polymorphism . Similarly, the closely related species A. parasiticus and A. sojae can only be distinguished using genetic markers such as RAPD . Our approach based upon the use of genus specific primers for mtDNA SSU rDNA followed by RFLPs appeared to resolve phylogenetically distant species, with the three section Flavi member species encountered in this study all displaying a single RFLP profile. In silico analysis of restriction sites in the target mtDNA SSU rDNA sequence for all Aspergillus species available in Genbank supported the observed polymorphisms delimiting in a group specific manner, separating section Flavi species from other species not classified in the section. Further investigation of this polymorphism is warranted across all member species of the section.