In one in vitro host-pathogen model incorporating dental
biofilms and human gingival epithelial cells, the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL-8 were degraded by the biofilm after four hours . In that study, direct contact with the biofilm was required RepSox chemical structure for biofilm mediated degradation of cytokines as filtered biofilm supernatant similar to BCM did not induce the degradation of cytokines. Our results showed that direct contact with the biofilm was not necessary for the observed decreases in cytokine production after 24 hours of exposure. A recent study investigating the effects of S. aureus biofilm infection in a mouse model found adaptive immune responses were regulated through cytokine production as the biofilm matured . In that study, the production
of key cytokines at certain times during the infection was hypothesized to manipulate the host’s adaptive immune response resulting in localized tissue damage allowing S. aureus to establish a mature biofilm and mount a successful infection. The patterns of cytokine and chemokine production from HKs exposed to either PCM or BCM are analogous to the patterns of cytokines produced during sepsis and chronic KU-57788 chemical structure inflammatory diseases, respectively. Sepsis is characterized by release of massive amounts of cytokines and is analogous to the effects of PCM on cytokine production in HKs. Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is similar to the effects of BCM where local inflammation is induced, but a runaway, self-inducing inflammatory response is not produced. Three sub-types of MAPKs have been identified in mammals, ERK, JNK, and p38. JNK and p38 activation in HKs by PCM agree Selleck Gemcitabine with other reports of JNK and p38 activation in mammalian cell cultures in response to bacterial cultures similar to the planktonic cultures described in this research [44, 56–60]. Suppression of JNK and p38 phosphorylation in https://www.selleckchem.com/products/nepicastat-hydrochloride.html BCM-treated HKs below that of control and PCM-treated HKs occurred after 4 hours. Transcriptional analysis of BCM-treated HKs revealed the upregulation of dual specificity
MAPK negative regulators, which may be responsible for the de-phosphorylation of JNK and p38 (Additional file 1). ERK is involved in the regulation of differentiation, apoptosis, and motility . The activation of ERK may be associated with the regulation of these processes in HKs treated with BCM. Chemical inhibition of MAPKs confirmed that PCM treatment induced more MAPK-dependent cytokine production than BCM in HKs after 4 hours of stimulation. The relative ineffectiveness of the MAPK inhibitors on BCM mediated cytokine production in addition to the reduced phosphorylation status of JNK and p38 suggests that BCM induces cytokine production through MAPK independent signaling mechanisms and the production of different factors by S. aureus biofilm compared to planktonic cultures.