The roots

The roots check details were then rinsed twice with SDW. The sterilized ginseng roots were dipped in bacterial suspensions (106 CFU/mL and 108 CFU/mL) for

40 min and dried for 1 h on a clean bench [31]. The roots were transplanted into artificially infested soil in plastic pots with concentrations of 5% oatmeal-culture fungal inoculum and incubated at 25°C. Root rot symptoms were examined visually 10 d following inoculation. Two concentrations of Bacillus broth cultures (106 CFU/mL and 108 CFU/mL) were used as treatment. Ginseng root discs were treated with 20 μL of the bacterial suspensions and were placed on moistened filter paper inside petri dishes and incubated at 25°C. There were three replicates of root discs for each treatment, and the experiment was performed twice. To measure cell population changes, the whole root discs treated and inoculated were ground in a blender and suspended in 10 mL SDW. KRX-0401 supplier The solution was then diluted with SDW, spread

on BHI agar, and incubated at 28°C. After incubation of 20 h, the number of colonies formed on the agar plates was counted with the naked eye for the total bacterial population on the root discs. These were examined daily up to 7 d after incubation [32]. To prepare the samples for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the bacterial isolates grown in BHI broth for 2 d were mixed with the Fusarium isolate and incubated on PDA at 25°C. One d after incubation, mycelial discs were fixed with modified Karnovsky’s fixative [2% paraformaldehyde and 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.05M sodium cacodylate buffer (pH 7.2)] for 12 h at 4°C [33]. The fixed specimens were washed with 0.05M sodium cacodylate buffer three times for 10 min each. These were postfixed in 1% OsO4 at 4°C for 2 h, and briefly washed with distilled water. The specimens were then dehydrated in an ethanol series of 30%, 50%, 70%,

80%, and Inositol monophosphatase 1 90% for 10 min each, and in 100% ethanol three times for 10 min each [33]. Using hexamethyldisilazane (Electron Microscopy Sciences, Hatfield, PA, USA), specimens were dried and coated with gold using a sputter coater (MSC-101, JEOL). The specimens were observed under a field emission SEM (Auriga, Zeiss, Berlin, Germany) at an acceleration voltage of 5.0 kV. The fungal isolate C4-1 obtained from the rotten cactus stem had all the same mycological characteristics of Fusarium species and formed multicellular falcate macroconidia. Morphological characteristics of the fungal isolate were as follows: extensive and cotton-like mycelia with a colony color of pale orange or yellowish brown on PDA; macroconidia produced from polyphialides on CLA, slightly curved, frequently 3–5 septate, with a curved and tapering apical cell and a foot-shaped basal cell, measuring 37.9 ± 4.3 μm × 4.2 ± 0.5 μm; mesoconidia, which were fusoid, 1–5 septate, measuring 20.2 ± 4.3 μm × 3.7 ± 0.7 μm; intercalary chlamydospores; and absent microconidia ( Table 1, Fig. 1), indicating that they are matched well with the F.

As a result, employment in the City of Detroit declined whereas i

As a result, employment in the City of Detroit declined whereas it increased in the surrounding

suburbs. This decentralization was facilitated by the construction of federally-subsidized interstate freeways, including Interstate 94 along the shoreline of LSC, which improved access and reduced travel time (Edsall et al., 1988 and Surgue, U0126 cell line 2005). Construction of housing units continued in each county, with the real median home value higher in Macomb and Oakland Counties compared to the rest of the counties in the region (Fig. 4). However, the population in Wayne County during the period from 1960 to 1970 continued to increase (Fig. 3). Following one theory of urban dynamics, a possible explanation for this population increase is that as housing aged,

the rental costs declined http://www.selleckchem.com/products/dinaciclib-sch727965.html and people had a preference to reside in more crowded locations (Forrester, 1969). After 1970 (third period), the population, number of households and employment in Wayne County continually decreased, whereas these parameters increased in the other five counties (Lapeer, Sanilac, Oakland, Macomb, and St. Clair) although at a slower pace compared to the other two periods. Since 2000 there are some signs of stabilization in human dynamics (e.g. population, income, households) in the five counties probably due to the recent financial crisis (Fig. 3). Although population growth rates for each county slowed since the ID-8 1970s, an increasing trend in land development continued as a result of increased residential lot sizes (SEMCOG, 2003) (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4). From 1970 to 1980, the average real personal income per capita for the combined five counties in the LSC watershed was slightly lower compared to Wayne County but then diverged starting in 1981 when Wayne County levels became lower than the other counties and stayed lower until now (Fig. 3). This means that the human population with higher income per capita likely shifted from Wayne County (outside of LSC watershed) to the counties within the watershed, and these changes in the land use characteristics were likely to influence the lake. Between 1990 and 2000, the amount

of land used for homes increased by 19% while the number of homes grew by only 9% (Rogers, 2003). If these trends continue, urban pressures on LSC from its western catchment can only be expected to intensify. Therefore, human dynamics surrounding the lake provide a critical linkage in the CHANS framework because human activities in the watershed will inevitably influence point and nonpoint source pollutants, recreational activities and the spread of invasive species to LSC (Mavrommati et al., in press). Responding to the rapid industrialization and population growth, water and wastewater infrastructure was gradually built primarily to protect human health (e.g., drinking water) and secondarily to improve the ecological condition of the receiving waters (Fig. 5).

039 Bq/g) measured at the upstream Munroe Falls dam pool (Peck et

039 Bq/g) measured at the upstream Munroe Falls dam pool (Peck et al., 2007). The bedrock beneath the Gorge Dam pool sediment is sandstone and shale of the Cuyahoga Group, whereas the Munroe Falls site is underlain by the quartz-rich Sharon Formation. Shale often contains more 238U (the grand grandparent to 210Pb) than sandstone, and the difference in bedrock type may account for the slight difference in background values between these nearby sites. The core top (0 cmblf) was set to the time of core PS-341 mouse collection (year 2011.4). 9 cm of gravel at the base of core C4 is interpreted as a fluvial deposit predating the

construction of the dam. Overlying the gravel at 545 cmblf is the base of the impoundment mud deposit. The sample at 488.1 cmblf has an unrealistic 210Pb age (1890) that predates dam construction (Fig. 7). Therefore the age model is estimated by linear interpolation between the 210Pb CHIR-99021 supplier sample at 443.6 cmblf (1928) and the onset of inferred impoundment sedimentation at 545 cmblf (1912)(Fig. 7). Deep in the core the 210Pb values approach background; thus, the ages have larger uncertainty. As described in Section 3.3, bathymetric maps and sediment cores were used to obtain a sediment volume estimate. Core C4 was collected close to cross section 3 (Fig. 2) and contains

4.98 m of sediment between the 2010 and 1918 210Pb dated horizons. This amount of sediment agrees closely with the 4.86 m difference between the 1918 and 2010 bathymetric surfaces at cross section 3. The total sediment volume is estimated at 765,000 m3 and, based upon an average sediment dry bulk density (0.58 g cm−3), has an approximate mass of 444,000 tonnes. To examine changes in sediment accumulation rate we followed the method of Evans and Heller (2003). The mass accumulation PLEKHB2 rate (kg m−2 yr−1) for core

C4 was calculated by multiplying the sedimentation rate, determined from 210Pb dating, by the dry bulk density (measured at a 2 cm interval corresponding to an average time step of 0.4 yr). The core C4 mass accumulation rate was then multiplied by the dam pool surface area (160,000 m2) to estimate the total sediment mass deposited at each dated horizon (Fig. 8). Summing all 99 years of mass accumulation yielded a total of 508,000 tonnes of impoundment sediment. This value is only 14% greater than the mass obtained by simply multiplying the total volume by an average sediment density as reported above. Our method of multiplying the core C4 mass accumulation rate by the dam pool area assumes that the sediment thickness and sediment type at core site C4 is uniform throughout the impoundment. We believe that these assumptions are not severe limitations. Downstream of Front Street Bridge the C4 thickness is representative of much of the impoundment. However, between profiles 9 and 14 the sediment can be up to 8–10 m thick (Fig. 5).

The Caribbean is one of the world’s largest seas, stretching over

The Caribbean is one of the world’s largest seas, stretching over 1700 km from Florida to Panama, and between 2300 and 2800 km from Central America in the west to the Lesser Antilles archipelago

in the east. It is approximately the same size as the Mediterranean at over 2.75 million km2 and contains dozens of islands of varying size, ranging from Cuba (the largest at around 111,000 km2) to hundreds of smaller sand islets and cays (keys), with a total land area of approximately 230,000 km2. As noted by Conservation International, Dasatinib in vivo the Caribbean is distinguished for its high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Of the 13,000 known plant species, a remarkable 6500 are single-island endemics, with more than 200 plant genera and one plant family, which are found nowhere else. Of the more than 600 bird species recorded, over 25% of which are endemic, 13 are extinct and dozens more are threatened. While many island regions have an impoverished mammalian biota, the Caribbean is home to more than 90 mammal species, nearly half of which are endemic, including many species of rodents such as rare Lumacaftor in vitro giant shrews and 20 species of Capromyidae (hutia). The reptilian and amphibian fauna are also diverse, with almost 95% of the former’s 500 recorded

species being endemic. All 170 species of frogs are also endemic, many to single islands. In addition, more than 1500 species of fish, 25 coral genera, 630+ mollusc species, and numerous crustaceans, sea mammals, echinoderms, and sponges have been recorded. Many of these are threatened or have already acetylcholine been driven to extinction in historic times—the Caribbean monk seal (Monachus tropicalis), the region’s only endemic pinniped, was declared extinct in 1996 after having not been seen in four decades as a result of overhunting. Manatees (Trichechus manatus) and sea turtles are threatened as

well, and the recent introduction of the non-native, rapidly spreading, and voracious lionfish (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles) is also causing widespread ecological damage ( Schofield, 2009 and Albins and Hixon, 2011). A plethora of evidence from the Caribbean demonstrates a high level of biodiversity that has been transformed since European contact, but scholars are only now beginning to grasp how humans affected these island environments prehistorically (Fig. 1). Archeological evidence, though ephemeral in many places, suggests that hunter-gatherers (termed the “Lithic” or Ortoiroid) settled the Greater Antilles first ca. 5000–3000 B.C., though it is debated whether they came from Mesoamerica (Keegan, 2000 and Wilson et al., 1998) or South America (Callaghan, 2003).

It should be noted that such wind conditions are of a

It should be noted that such wind conditions are of a find more purely hypothetical character, as the probability of their occurrence is extremely low. Momentum, heat and water air-sea fluxes in the last four experiments were calculated assuming that the atmospheric fields – wind, air temperature, relative humidity and cloudiness – are stationary and horizontally homogeneous (Table 2). The atmospheric parameters used in the flux calculations were determined according to the Climate Atlas

of Croatia (Zaninović et al. 2008). Sea density profiles were extracted from the 3D numerical model results at the positions of the submarine outfalls analysed with a 12 h time increment (Figure 1). These vertical profiles were used in the implemented near-field numerical model for calculating effluent mixing in the vicinity of the submarine outfalls. The near-field model supplies relevant data on the maximum vertical positions of the effluent plume above the sea bottom for successive density vertical distributions using a 12 h increment over a period of 48 h. Since the density profiles

obtained from the measurements in March were vertically well mixed, the effluent plume could reach the sea surface even without wind assistance; numerical analysis of the mixing process in the near-field was not carried out for March. Verification of the 3D numerical model results for the

period from 3 to 7 September 1976 was carried MK-2206 research buy out using the initial and boundary conditions explained in section 2. Figure 5 shows snapshots of the current velocity fields at 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 m depth at the time coinciding with the registered wind speed maxima (21 m s−1 – Figure 2) from the NE. Downwind currents are found in the upper layer extending down to 20 m depth, while compensating north-eastward and eastward flows are from 20 m depth to the bottom. Figure 6 shows a comparison of the measured and modelled T profiles at oceanographic stations 1–5 (Figure 1). The differences in the middle and bottom layers at measurement site 4 are small and most likely caused by the presence of the local bottom freshwater springs typical of the area but not included in the model simulation. At station 5 the differences are NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase the most pronounced but still small, probably due to errors in the initial vertical T profile used in the vicinity of station 5. Figures 7 and 8 show the hourly averaged current velocity fields at 1, 10 and 40 m depth during the constant wind forcing from the NE with speeds of 7.5 and 10 m s−1, 24 and 48 h after the wind forcing onset. The former results refer to the period from late June until early July. The current field structure with outgoing flow in the surface layer and compensating currents below are similar in all the experiments.

05 apart from: (1) the MANOVA which was set at p <  01 as prelimi

05 apart from: (1) the MANOVA which was set at p < .01 as preliminary assumption testing revealed violations in terms of homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices and equality of variance, (2) post hoc Tukey's studentized range test where p < .01 was employed, and (3) post hoc tests assessing group effects, where

a Bonferroni corrected alpha of .008 was employed. All data analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics 19 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Of the 2129 students registered on the target courses, 850 did not attend the teaching session where data collect took place; therefore, the 1279 AUY-922 attending were invited to participate. Of these, 1036 (81.0%) responded giving an overall response rate of 48.6%. There were no significant differences between courses in terms of response rates. Participants were predominately female (n = 815, 78.7%), were on average 20.3 years of age (median (IQR) = 20.3 (2.17) years) and were of a healthy body

mass index (BMI) (median (IQR) = 21.6 (3.79) kg/m2). There were significant student group effects on gender, age and BMI (p < .001). Although there were more males in the medical student group compared to other courses (p < .01) and Nursing BSc students were more likely to be older and have higher BMI than other student groups (p < .01), these differences were not significant using the Bonferroni corrected alpha Ribociclib nmr of .008. The one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between ratings (Wilks’ Lambda = .19, F(10,1090) = 471.22, p < .001, multivariate

eta squared = .81). According to Cohen, the effect size can be considered to be very large [53]. Post hoc Tukey’s studentized range test identified statistically significant differences between pairs of terms ( Fig. 1). Participants’ preferred terms when raising the issue of obesity with clients were BMI (mean = .96), weight Rutecarpine (mean = .71) and unhealthy BMI (mean = .43) ( Fig. 1). None of the 11 terms were considered to be ‘desirable’ (+1) to ‘very desirable’ (+2). On average, participants rated fatness (mean = −1.57), excess fat (mean = −1.24), large size (mean = −1.17), and heaviness (mean = −1.14) as being ‘undesirable’ (−1) to ‘very undesirable’ (−2) while obesity (mean = −.57), excess weight (mean = −.33), weight problem (mean = −.13) and unhealthy body weight (mean = .08) were rated as ‘neutral’ (0) to ‘undesirable’ (−1). The one-way between-groups multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant effects in relation to the course that students were registered on, but not gender (Pillai’s trace = .09, F(44,4320) = 2.27, p < .001, multivariate eta squared = .02). However, according to Cohen, the effect size can be considered to be very small [53].

A value of P < 0 001 was considered significant To investigate

A value of P < 0.001 was considered significant. To investigate

the effect of LM-PLA2-I on retinal ganglion cell survival, we added increasing concentrations of the enzyme to culture medium. Fig. 1A reports the influence of LM-PLA2-I (2.5–12.5 μg/mL) on ganglion cell survival. Addition of LM-PLA2-I (5.0 μg/mL) to cell culture resulted in a 50% SRT1720 manufacturer increase on retinal ganglion cell survival. As also observed in Fig. 1A, at higher concentrations of LM-PLA2-I (12.5 μg/mL), the effect upon ganglion cells survival was less pronounced, but surprisingly a neuronal outgrowth was observed (data not shown). The effect of LM-PLA2-I upon ganglion cells was a bell-shaped curve with a maximum survival effect at 5.0 μg/mL (Fig. 1A). Accordingly, we use 5.0 μg/mL of LM-PLA2-I in further experiments to investigate the

mechanism of action of the enzyme upon retinal ganglion cell survival. This survival effect of LM-PLA2-I upon ganglion cells was dependent of its enzymatic activity, since when LM-PLA2-I was chemically modified with p-BPB (10 μM), both activities (named survival and hemolysis) were abolished with this treatment (data not shown), clearly showing a parallelism between them, and suggesting learn more the need of generation of LPC by the PLA2 enzyme to express the observed effect on the retina. Indeed, Fig. 1B shows that commercial LPC, at 10 μM also much protected retinal ganglion cells from death. On the other hand, higher concentrations of LPC (up to 25 μM) led cells to death, being considered toxic on such concentrations; while at lower concentrations (5 μM), LPC was ineffective upon ganglion cells (Fig. 1B). It is worthwhile emphasizing

that a synergic effect between LPC (5 μM or 10 μM) and fatty acids (10 μM) upon ganglion cells survival was not observed (data not shown). Moreover, fatty acids alone (5–50 μM) also did not interfere on ganglion cell survival; neither stimulated nor inhibited (data not shown). The mechanism of action of LM-PLA2-I on the survival effect of ganglion cells was investigated (Fig. 2). When cultures were treated with 1.25 μM chelerythrine chloride (a PKC enzyme inhibitor) or the inhibitor of JNK (iJNK), the survival effect of LM-PLA2-I upon retinal ganglion cells was completely abolished (Fig. 2A and B, respectively), suggesting that PKC and JNK enzyme activities are important steps on LM-PLA2-I-induced ganglion cells survival. In contrast, when cells were treated with BAPTA-AM (10 μM), that is an intracellular calcium chelator, the ganglion cells survival induced by LM-PLA2-I was not abolished (Fig. 2C). It is important to emphasize that chelerythrine chloride, iJNK or BAPTA-AM alone did not interfere on ganglion cell survival (Fig. 2A–C). Later, the participation of PKCδ (novel class of PKC isoform) was investigated.

3B″) and at this point the implant was clearly osseointegrated T

3B″) and at this point the implant was clearly osseointegrated. The maximum amount of osseointegration was achieved by day 21 (Fig. 3E). Of 23 implants placed, 21 had primary stability and by histologic assessment,

17 achieved osseointegration (a 74% success rate). We evaluated the peri-implant tissue reaction to the surgery and implant placement, and focused on samples harvested on day 14, when implants had osseointegrated. The peri-implant mucosa appeared healthy and devoid of inflammatory cells (Fig. 4A). A junctional epithelium, composed of non-keratinized, invaginating epithelium had selleck chemicals llc formed around the neck of a non-enclosed implant (Fig. 4A). The connective tissue attachment was well organized and was in direct contact with the implant surface (Fig. 4A). In regions closer to the native bone, new osteoid matrix was forming adjacent to the maxillary periosteum (arrows, Fig. 4A). In mice, most implants projected through the maxillary bone into the olfactory epithelium (e.g., Fig. 3). Murine olfactory tissue, which is considerably larger in rodents, occupies the position of the nasal fossae in humans. We evaluated how these tissues responded to the implant. Fibroblasts had infiltrated the glandular olfactory epithelium and adhered to the implant without evidence of inflammation (Fig. 4B).

In other cases, Quizartinib research buy new bone formation was detectable in the fibrous tissue attached to the implant surface (Fig. 4B′). We also analyzed cell viability in the maxillary bone. Using DAPI to detect cell nuclei and DIC to illustrate the osteocyte lacunae, we noted areas of extensive cell death in the cortical bone adjacent to the implant (dotted

yellow line, Fig. 4C). The empty enough lacunae were exclusively found near the cut edge of the maxillary bone (dotted yellow line, Fig. 4C) and along the alveolar ridge where the flap was raised during the surgery (Fig. 4C′). This same DAPI staining indicated abundant new cells on the (unperturbed) nasal surface of the bone, along the new bone in contact with the implant surface, and along the periosteum (Fig. 4C,C′). Thus, the observed changes in peri-implant tissues are remarkably similar to the mucosal responses observed in large animals [28]. Furthermore, the results demonstrate how the standard surgical procedure of implant placement affects cell viability in the native bone. We were particularly interested in the impact of the osteotomy on the viability of osteocytes in the maxillary bone, because this has implications for long-term bone regeneration and bone remodeling at the site of implant placement. Using samples from day 14, we first distinguished between mature osteocytes of the maxillary bone (dotted line, Figs. 5A,B) and new osteoid matrix: Mature maxillary bone had a lamellar organization whereas the new bone was characterized by a woven appearance (arrows, Figs. 5A,B).

Questions to be asked are for example: Is our parameterization of

Questions to be asked are for example: Is our parameterization of a continuum in ligand degradation rates reasonable or would it be better to model several ligand classes with different degradation rates (Hansell et al., 2012), but also possibly different photoreactivities and stability constants (Barbeau et al., 2003)? Would it be better to make the direct production of ligands near the surface directly dependent on iron limitation of phytoplankton and/or bacteria? Are external sources of ligands, e.g. from rivers (Mikkelsen et al., 2006 and Rijkenberg et al., 2006) important

for the open ocean? Despite this complexity, a general paradigm for ligand cycling has emerged (Hunter and Boyd, 2007 and Gledhill and Buck, 2012) that ABT-888 clinical trial contradicts how ligands are currently simulated in OGCBMs. We have attempted to appraise how such a view can be represented in two OGCBMs and evaluate the controlling mechanisms and impact on Olaparib mw iron cycling. We thank Ying Ye, who started the compilation of ligand data and initiated the prognostic ligand modeling. We also thank the reviewers for their helpful and constructive comments and the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) by the International Council for Science for travel support. The work of C.V. was supported by the BMBF project SOPRAN under grant agreement 03F0662C. This work made use of the facilities of N8 HPC provided and funded by the N8 consortium

and EPSRC (grant EP/K000225/1) and coordinated by the Universities of Leeds and Manchester. “
“Current Resveratrol Opinion in Immunology 2015, 32:xx–yy This review comes from a themed issue on Innate immunity Edited by Zhijian J Chen and Sebastian Amigorena http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2014.11.001 0952-7915/© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

DCs were originally identified by Steinman and Cohn in mouse spleen on the basis of their unique morphology, which distinguished them from macrophages [1]. They were subsequently found to be the most potent stimulators of the mixed lymphocyte reaction [2], setting the foundation for decades of research demonstrating the importance of DCs in initiating adaptive immune responses. The name dendritic cell has become synonymous with motile cells of stellate morphology, expressing high levels of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and the integrin CD11c [3 and 4], distinguished by their ability to migrate from non-lymphoid to lymphoid organs and their superior capacity to stimulate T lymphocytes [5, 6 and 7]. This has been subsumed into the notion that DCs can be defined by their ability to migrate to secondary lymphoid tissues and prime T cells. This definition is useful but excludes the possibility that, in some instances, T cell priming may be carried out by monocytes or macrophages.

In reality, the heart is deformable and the motion is therefore m

In reality, the heart is deformable and the motion is therefore more complex. All in vivo B2B-RMC acquisitions to date have been acquired in healthy volunteers, but we are now actively recruiting patients. In general, breathing patterns are more erratic in the patient population with greater respiratory drift than for healthy subjects, and we therefore might expect the benefits of B2B-RMC to be more pronounced. In our study group, we have only targeted the right coronary artery as it is the more mobile and therefore the more challenging imaging target. However, preliminary attempts in imaging the left coronary artery system have also been successful despite a generally reduced

volume of fat surrounding Small Molecule Compound Library these arteries. Also, vessel diameter and sharpness were only measured in the first 40 mm of the artery. This is partly due to the localized nature of the cross-correlation method which was used to selectively

correct for the respiratory motion of the proximal/mid artery, but these measurements also become increasingly difficult around the escalating number of branch points more distally. Nonetheless, we have qualitatively demonstrated that the B2B-RMC may be used to correct for respiratory motion in the distal right coronary artery by selecting appropriate regions of interest to cross-correlate. In the future, nonrigid implementations will be investigated in order to correct whole-heart 3D coronary artery acquisitions. A further limitation Screening Library purchase of this study is that although SNR and contrast to noise ratio are important determinants of image quality, the inherently different mafosfamide image contrast between the 3D spiral and nav-bSSFP techniques used in the in vivo

studies meant that such measures were inappropriate for comparing the performance of respiratory compensation strategies in this context. While the ideal solution would have been to perform an additional identical 3D spiral acquisition with a 5-mm navigator gating window, this was not possible due to time constraints. One potential alternative would have been to acquire a navigator gated 3D spiral acquisition with B2B-RMC and a 5-mm gating window to enable gated and corrected images to be reconstructed from the same data set. It is also possible to implement the bSSFP with the B2B-RMC technique. However, both of these options require considerable modifications to the pulse sequence and image reconstruction software which were not possible at the time of this study. In conclusion, the B2B-RMC technique can be used to correct for respiratory motion with 99.7% respiratory efficiency as well as a navigator-based technique with a 5-mm gating window (44.0% efficient), using vessel sharpness and vessel diameter from phantom and right coronary artery imaging to quantitatively compare the methods. “
“In the above article, there were editorial errors in Eqs. (5), (6) and (7). Below are the equations as they should have appeared.